Lecture 4 (FIRST MIDTERM) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 (FIRST MIDTERM) Deck (23):
1

Joint/articulation classifications:

Synarthroses
Amphiarthroses
Diarthroses

2

Synarthroses (brief description):

immovable
example: skull bones

3

Amphiarthroses (brief description):

slightly movable
example: intervertebral joints

4

Diarthroses (brief description):

highly mobile; freely movable
example: shoulder, hip, knee, wrist, ankle, etc.

5

Synarthroses types and descriptions:

-Suture: joints between cranial bones; held together by dense connective tissue
-Gomphosis: teeth
-Synchondrosis: cartilaginous plate holding 2 pieces of bone together (like the metaphyses)
-Synostosis: complete fusion of cranial bones; no apparent division between bones

6

Amphiarthroses types and descriptions:

-Syndesmosis: a ligament band connecting bones (like tibia and fibula)
-Symphysis: bones separated by a fibrocartilage pad (like pubic symphysis)

7

Diarthroses type(s) and description:

-Synovial joint: hyaline articular cartilage slides freely past each other; freely moving joint

8

Where is the hyaline cartilage NEVER supposed to turn into bone during ossification?

At the articular surface

9

In diarthroses type of joint, the periosteum (outside covering) forms what?

the joint (articular) capsule

10

In synovial joints, what is lining the inside of the joint (articular) capsule? What does it NOT cover?

Synovial membrane
It does NOT line the articular cartilage

11

The synovial membrane secretes what?

synovial fluid

12

What kind of joint is a knee joint?

"Specialized" synovial joint

13

What is the fibrocartilage pad in the knee called?

menisci (plural: meniscus)

14

The menisci does 2 things:

-Acts as a cushion
-Increases the congruence of the joint (fills space and makes it more stable)

15

Flexion
Extension
Hypertension

Flexion: decreases angle between articulating bones
Extension: increases angle between articulating bones (same plane as flexion)
Hypertension: extension past the anatomical position

16

Abduction
Adduction

Abduction: move away from midline
Adduction: move closer to midline

17

Midline in your hands is...

at the 3rd digit

18

Supination
Pronation

Supination: palms up
Pronation: palms down

19

Lateral (external) rotation
Medial (internal) rotation

Lateral (external) rotation: rotate toward the outside
Medial (internal) rotation: rotate toward the middle

20

Opposition

Opposition: movement of thumb toward the surface of the palm (the 5th digit, or pinky, can do this a little bit)

21

Inversion
Eversion

Inversion: twist the sole of the foot inward
Eversion: opposite way; outward

22

Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion

Dorsiflexion: flexion at the ankle; digging heel in ground
Plantar flexion: opposite; standing on tiptoe

23

Protraction
Retraction

Protraction: moving body part forward horizontally
Retraction: reverse
(example: moving jaw from underbite to overbite)