Flashcards in Lecture 4 (FIRST MIDTERM) Deck (23):
Synarthroses (brief description):
example: skull bones
Amphiarthroses (brief description):
example: intervertebral joints
Diarthroses (brief description):
highly mobile; freely movable
example: shoulder, hip, knee, wrist, ankle, etc.
Synarthroses types and descriptions:
-Suture: joints between cranial bones; held together by dense connective tissue
-Synchondrosis: cartilaginous plate holding 2 pieces of bone together (like the metaphyses)
-Synostosis: complete fusion of cranial bones; no apparent division between bones
Amphiarthroses types and descriptions:
-Syndesmosis: a ligament band connecting bones (like tibia and fibula)
-Symphysis: bones separated by a fibrocartilage pad (like pubic symphysis)
Diarthroses type(s) and description:
-Synovial joint: hyaline articular cartilage slides freely past each other; freely moving joint
Where is the hyaline cartilage NEVER supposed to turn into bone during ossification?
At the articular surface
In diarthroses type of joint, the periosteum (outside covering) forms what?
the joint (articular) capsule
In synovial joints, what is lining the inside of the joint (articular) capsule? What does it NOT cover?
It does NOT line the articular cartilage
The synovial membrane secretes what?
What kind of joint is a knee joint?
"Specialized" synovial joint
What is the fibrocartilage pad in the knee called?
menisci (plural: meniscus)
The menisci does 2 things:
-Acts as a cushion
-Increases the congruence of the joint (fills space and makes it more stable)
Flexion: decreases angle between articulating bones
Extension: increases angle between articulating bones (same plane as flexion)
Hypertension: extension past the anatomical position
Abduction: move away from midline
Adduction: move closer to midline
Midline in your hands is...
at the 3rd digit
Supination: palms up
Pronation: palms down
Lateral (external) rotation
Medial (internal) rotation
Lateral (external) rotation: rotate toward the outside
Medial (internal) rotation: rotate toward the middle
Opposition: movement of thumb toward the surface of the palm (the 5th digit, or pinky, can do this a little bit)
Inversion: twist the sole of the foot inward
Eversion: opposite way; outward
Dorsiflexion: flexion at the ankle; digging heel in ground
Plantar flexion: opposite; standing on tiptoe