7. Emotional Labour And Its Contribution With HRM To Management Outcomes (Week 4) Flashcards Preview

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Define emotional labour?

1. Emotions are feelings experienced towards an object, person or even that creates a state of readiness
2. Hochschild (1983:7) developed the term emotional labour to refer to the "management of feeling to create a publically observable facial and body display". AT work the term is used when the creation of a public face or bodily display is a central part of the delivery of the service or product. it is heightened when the potential gap between real and displayed emotions widens.


What is internal emotional dissonance?

1. They psychological stress related to the internal conflict of displaying a certain emotion while actually feeling something quite different


What are the external factors that influence emotional dissonance?

1. frequency of the required emotional display
2. requirement to attend to certain display rules e.g. a script
3. The required variety involved in the work role


HR responses to dealing with emotional dissonance

1. During the recruitment process, reduce values gap between the organisation and the individual by
a. developing clearly articulated organisational values
b. ensuring espoused values are enacted


HR responses to dealing with external sources of emotional stress

1. Rather than relying too heavily on intrusive forms of monitoring organisations are recognising the vlaue of normative control or self-initiated adhereence to organisational goals
2. In such situations companies concentrate on developing an awareness within empoloyees of what is important and allowing the employee to respond as required


How is workplace violence classified?

1. Abusive communication (verbal or written threats)
2. Behaviours which create an enviroment of fear (intimidation, exclusion, initiation of new recruits)
3. Physical abuse (not resulting in harm)
4. Physical abuse resulting in harm
5. Sexual harrasment
6. Stalking


Who is at risk and from whom? (Workplace violence)

1. Intra-organisational conflict: situations which place employees at risk from other employees
2. Occupational violence: situations where the nature of the work places people at risk
3. Violence from the general public: motivated by gain and opportunistic violence


Define bullying

1. Definitions vary but all definitions contain an element of power in one form or another
2. On a continuum ranging from spreading malicious rumours, over critical work evaulation, to direct verbal threats and physical violence.


Types of bullying

1. Gatekeeper bullying: establishing barriers
2. Sandpit bullying: trying to reduce opportunities for achievers e.g. assigning experts to generalist tasks, taking over a project when it is assured of success
3. Toilet bullying: ridicule, slander, vilification
4. King bullying: expulsion of workers from locations, careers, groups, special projects, committees


HR responses to workplace violence

1. there is a legal requirement (OHS) that employers provide a safe workplace but employers also have to respect privacy of employees
2. The push to become and employer of choice also motivates companies to take the issue seriously
3. Policy design
4. Recruitment and selection
5. management training


Summarise emotional labour

The key thing to understand about emotional labour is that it refers to the gap between the reqired emotional display and the actual emotion felt by the employee
1. Emotional labour is impacted by both internal conflict and external pressure
2. HR can help with
a. clearer communication of what the organisation wants and values
b. promoting normative control rather than overt monitoring
3. Policy development, recruitment, selection and training


What are the external conditions that intensify the need to perform emotional labour (4)?

1. Frequency: how often does the emotion need to be exhibited? Emotional labour that requires high frequency is more demanding and requires more exertion by employees
2. Intensity and duration: This refers to the display rules or script required for a job e.g. airline crew on a long haul flight
3. Expected intensity: When employees have to display deep emotions in difficult circumstances e.g doctors and nurses
4. Variety: The expectationn that employees will move from one emotion to another over a brief period of time requires psychological exertion


What strategies to employees use to reduce stress?

1. Emotional intelligence: self awareness, self management, self-motivation, social awareness, relationship management