Which glial cells cover neurons in myelin in the CNS?
Which structures are found between myelinated sections of CNS neurons?
Nodes of Ranvier
What channels are found in the Nodes of Ranvier?
What is meant by saltatory conduction?
The way an action potential jumps between Nodes of Ranvier in CNS neurons
What is the most important primary demyelinating disease you need to know about?
Which demyelinating disease has a typical onset between 30 and 40?
In which age of patient does MS tend to present?
30s - 40s
The lesions seen in MS are said to be "disseminated in ___ and ___".
disseminated in time and space
What is the typical course of MS?
Relapsing and remitting
MS tends to affect the (white matter / grey matter) of the brain.
What are demyelinating lesions called in MS?
What do MS plaques look like grossly?
Small, irregular, translucent
Where can MS plaques be found?
Virtually anywhere in the CNS
Which cell types can be seen in active MS plaques?
Microglia - brain's immune cells
Inflammatory cells and microglia can be seen in (active / inactive) MS plaques.
Which pathological process is ongoing in active MS?
In which process do glial cells hypertrophy, increase in number and then scar?
Which pathological process is seen in inactive MS plaques?
Which evidence of MS can be seen in the CSF of affected patients?
What is the most common type of dementia?
What happens grossly to the brain in Alzheimer's disease?
Which lobes atrophy in Alzheimer's disease?
As the brain atrophies in Alzheimer's disease, what do the ventricles do to compensate?
Causing a form of hydrocephalus
Which brain areas, responsible for memory, are particularly affected in Alzheimer's disease?
Neurofibrillary tangles are a histological feature of Alzheimer's disease.
What protein are they made of?
What is a starch-like protein which is distributed around the body in certain diseases?
Neuritic plaques are a feature of Alzheimer's disease.
What abnormal, starch-like protein are they made of?
What are three microscopic features of Alzheimer's disease?
Neurofibrillary tangles - tau protein
Neuritic plaques - amyloid
Which two abnormal proteins are implicated in the onset of Alzheimer's disease?
Which type of dementia presents with hallucinations?
Lewy body dementia