7: Neuropathology 3 Flashcards Preview

Neurology Week 4 2018/19 > 7: Neuropathology 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Neuropathology 3 Deck (45)
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1

Which glial cells cover neurons in myelin in the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes

2

Which structures are found between myelinated sections of CNS neurons?

Nodes of Ranvier

3

What channels are found in the Nodes of Ranvier?

Ion channels

4

What is meant by saltatory conduction?

The way an action potential jumps between Nodes of Ranvier in CNS neurons

5

What is the most important primary demyelinating disease you need to know about?

Multiple sclerosis

6

Which demyelinating disease has a typical onset between 30 and 40?

Multiple sclerosis

7

In which age of patient does MS tend to present?

30s - 40s

8

The lesions seen in MS are said to be "disseminated in ___ and ___".

disseminated in time and space

9

What is the typical course of MS?

Relapsing and remitting

10

MS tends to affect the (white matter / grey matter) of the brain.

white matter

11

What are demyelinating lesions called in MS?

Plaques

12

What do MS plaques look like grossly?

Small, irregular, translucent

but well-demarcated

13

Where can MS plaques be found?

Virtually anywhere in the CNS

14

Which cell types can be seen in active MS plaques?

Inflammatory cells

Microglia - brain's immune cells

15

Inflammatory cells and microglia can be seen in (active / inactive) MS plaques.

active

16

Which pathological process is ongoing in active MS?

Demyelination

17

In which process do glial cells hypertrophy, increase in number and then scar?

Gliosis

18

Which pathological process is seen in inactive MS plaques?

Gliosis

19

Which evidence of MS can be seen in the CSF of affected patients?

Oligoclonal bands

20

What is the most common type of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

21

What happens grossly to the brain in Alzheimer's disease?

Widespread atrophy

22

Which lobes atrophy in Alzheimer's disease?

Frontal lobe

Temporal lobes

Parietal lobes

23

As the brain atrophies in Alzheimer's disease, what do the ventricles do to compensate?

Dilate

Causing a form of hydrocephalus

24

Which brain areas, responsible for memory, are particularly affected in Alzheimer's disease?

Hippocampus

Temporal lobes

25

Neurofibrillary tangles are a histological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

What protein are they made of?

Tau protein

26

What is a starch-like protein which is distributed around the body in certain diseases?

Amyloid

27

Neuritic plaques are a feature of Alzheimer's disease.

What abnormal, starch-like protein are they made of?

Amyloid

28

What are three microscopic features of Alzheimer's disease?

Widespread atrophy

Neurofibrillary tangles - tau protein

Neuritic plaques - amyloid

29

Which two abnormal proteins are implicated in the onset of Alzheimer's disease?

Amyloid

Tau

30

Which type of dementia presents with hallucinations?

Lewy body dementia