What is sleep?
Recurring, reversible state where you lose ability to respond to environment
Are you conscious or unconscious when asleep?
What are the two main types of sleep?
a) R.E.M. sleep
b) Non-R.E.M. sleep occur?
a) End of the night, short period
b) Start and most of the night
What happens to the body during non R.E.M. sleep?
Relaxation of muscles
Decreased HR and BP
Protein synthesis, cell division and growth
What happens to your
b) blood flow
during R.E.M. sleep?
a) complete relaxation (atonic, to stop you from jumping out of bed)
What is the most important type of sleep?
makes up the majority
What is the homeostatic process of sleep?
If you're in a 'sleep debt', your body will try to sleep
Being awake and being asleep are partly controlled by your body's ___ rhythm.
What stimulus 'resets' your body clock?
via 'non-rod, non-cone cells'
What is the name for a stimulus which acts as a cue for your body's circadian rhythm?
Sleep ___ has profound effects on your behaviour and cognition.
What happens when you sleep?
Growth and repair
Protein synthesis and cell division
What is the only time which the cortex rests?
What are some of the effects of sleep deprivation?
Loss of concentration
Which behaviours aren't affected by sleep deprivation?
Strongly reinforced habits e.g protocols
Does sleep deprivation itself kill people?
People who are sleep deprived are more likely to die in ___.
At which times does your circadian rhythm make you the most tired?
How long should you sleep at night?
7 - 8 hours
How long should you nap for in the afternoon?
equivalent to 90 minutes of overnight sleep
Confusion all arousal / Non R.E.M. parasomnia
Why do patients behave primally during confused arousal?
Primitive brain 'wakes up' first
What is a parasomnia?
Abnormal transitions from sleeping to wakefulness
e.g sleepwalking, talking, night terrors, paralysis, bruxism
What is a R.E.M. Parasomnia?
Simple behaviours e.g kicking occurring during the last third of the night
R.E.M. parasomnias are strongly associated with which neurodegenerative disease?
In which disease do patients frequently fall asleep involuntarily?
What is the presentation of narcolepsy?
Daytime sleepiness - impossible to resist
Cataplexy - hypotonia in response to strong emotions
Hallucinations - at sleep onset
What are the investigations for narcolepsy?
Overnight polysomnography - EEG strapped to head, sleep waves analysed
Multiple sleep latency test
How does a multiple sleep latency test work?
What does it find in narcolepsy?
Patient timed getting to sleep up to four times
REM sleep occurs much faster than in normal people