1: Sleep - physiology, hypersomnolence, parasomnias Flashcards Preview

Neurology Week 4 2018/19 > 1: Sleep - physiology, hypersomnolence, parasomnias > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Sleep - physiology, hypersomnolence, parasomnias Deck (34)
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1

What is sleep?

Recurring, reversible state where you lose ability to respond to environment

2

Are you conscious or unconscious when asleep?

Both

3

What are the two main types of sleep?

REM sleep

Non-R.E.M. Sleep

4

When does

a) R.E.M. sleep

b) Non-R.E.M. sleep occur?

a) End of the night, short period

b) Start and most of the night

5

What happens to the body during non R.E.M. sleep?

Relaxation of muscles

Decreased HR and BP

Reduced respiration

Protein synthesis, cell division and growth

6

What happens to your

a) muscles

b) blood flow

during R.E.M. sleep?

a) complete relaxation (atonic, to stop you from jumping out of bed)

b) increases

7

What is the most important type of sleep?

Non-R.E.M. sleep

makes up the majority

8

What is the homeostatic process of sleep?

If you're in a 'sleep debt', your body will try to sleep

9

Being awake and being asleep are partly controlled by your body's ___ rhythm.

Circadian

10

What stimulus 'resets' your body clock?

Light

via 'non-rod, non-cone cells'

11

What is the name for a stimulus which acts as a cue for your body's circadian rhythm?

Zeitgeber

12

Sleep ___ has profound effects on your behaviour and cognition.

Sleep deprivation

13

What happens when you sleep?

Growth and repair

Protein synthesis and cell division

14

What is the only time which the cortex rests?

During sleep

15

What are some of the effects of sleep deprivation?

Loss of concentration

Visual hallucinations

Irritable behaviour

16

Which behaviours aren't affected by sleep deprivation?

Strongly reinforced habits e.g protocols

17

Does sleep deprivation itself kill people?

Probably

18

People who are sleep deprived are more likely to die in ___.

accidents

19

At which times does your circadian rhythm make you the most tired?

2pm

4am

20

How long should you sleep at night?

7 - 8 hours

21

How long should you nap for in the afternoon?

15 minutes

equivalent to 90 minutes of overnight sleep

22

Confusion all arousal / Non R.E.M. parasomnia

23

Why do patients behave primally during confused arousal?

Primitive brain 'wakes up' first

24

What is a parasomnia?

Abnormal transitions from sleeping to wakefulness

e.g sleepwalking, talking, night terrors, paralysis, bruxism

25

What is a R.E.M. Parasomnia?

Simple behaviours e.g kicking occurring during the last third of the night

26

R.E.M. parasomnias are strongly associated with which neurodegenerative disease?

Parkinson's disease

27

In which disease do patients frequently fall asleep involuntarily?

Narcolepsy

28

What is the presentation of narcolepsy?

Daytime sleepiness - impossible to resist

Cataplexy - hypotonia in response to strong emotions

Hallucinations - at sleep onset

Sleep paralysis

REM parasomnias

29

What are the investigations for narcolepsy?

Overnight polysomnography - EEG strapped to head, sleep waves analysed

Multiple sleep latency test

30

How does a multiple sleep latency test work?

What does it find in narcolepsy?

Patient timed getting to sleep up to four times

REM sleep occurs much faster than in normal people