4: Neuropathology 2 Flashcards Preview

Neurology Week 4 2018/19 > 4: Neuropathology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4: Neuropathology 2 Deck (47)
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1

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexuses of lateral, third and fourth ventricles

2

What is the other name for the cerebral aqueduct?

Aqueduct of Sylvius 

3

Where is CSF reabsorbed?

Arachnoid granulations -> Sagittal sinus

4

What are three problems with CSF which can cause hydrocephalus?

Overproduction

Lack of absorption

Obstruction

5

What is

a) non-communicating

b) communicating

hydrocephalus?

a) Non-communicating - blockage within ventricles prevents CSF flow

b) Communicating - blockage elsewhere e.g subarachnoid space or granulations causes CSF blockage and hydrocephalus

6

What happens if hydrocephalus occurs before the skull bones have fused?

Head enlargement

7

An increase in CSF volume leads to an increase in ___ ___.

intracranial pressure

8

What happens to the brain in response to raised intracranial pressure?

Compression

then Herniation

9

Why is brain herniation so dangerous?

Compression of cranial nerves and centres

10

How is cerebral perfusion pressure calculated?

MAP - ICP

11

What are the symptoms of a raised ICP?

Headaches

N&V

Papilloedema

Neck stiffness

12

What are some examples of space occupying lesions?

Tumour

Abscess

Haematoma

Cerebral oedema

13

Why are the focal headaches associated with SOLs worse in the morning?

During sleep you become slightly hypercapnic

Which increases pressure

14

On which side of the tentorium cerebelli do brain tumours tend to arise in

a) adults

b) children?

a) above

b) below

15

Brain tumours most commonly found in the population are (primary / secondary).

Secondary

metastatic cancers from liver, breast, lungs...

16

Why are all brain tumours considered dangerous?

Compression effect

Even benign tumours grow slowly

17

What is the most common type of primary brain tumour in adults?

Astrocytoma (tumour of astrocytes, supporting cells)

18

Which grade of astrocytoma does not progress?

Who tends to get them?

Grade I

Children

19

Which grades of astrocytoma have the potential to become very malignant?

II, III and IV

20

What is a Grade IV astrocytoma called?

Glioblastoma

21

What is the 2nd most common primary brain tumour in children?

Where in the brain is it found?

Medulloblastoma

Cerebellum

22

Medulloblastomas are (well / poorly) differentiated and have a (good / poor) prognosis.

poorly differentiated

poor prognosis

23

What therapy is medulloblastoma susceptible to?

Radiotherapy

24

What is an abscess?

Empty space filled with pus

25

What are the symptoms of a brain abscess?

Fever

And raised ICP symptoms (headache, N&V, visual problems, neck stiffness)

26

How are brain abscesses investigated and treated?

Brain imaging (CT / MRI)

Aspiration Antibiotics

27

What is meant by missile and non-missile trauma?

Missile - penetrating

Non-missile - blunt

28

Penetrating head trauma tends to affect a ___ area.

focal area

29

The greater the ___ of a projectile, the greater the size of the injury it causes.

velocity

30

What happens to the head in a blunt force injury?

Sudden change in momentum