Where is CSF produced?
Choroid plexuses of lateral, third and fourth ventricles
What is the other name for the cerebral aqueduct?
Aqueduct of Sylvius
Where is CSF reabsorbed?
Arachnoid granulations -> Sagittal sinus
What are three problems with CSF which can cause hydrocephalus?
Lack of absorption
a) Non-communicating - blockage within ventricles prevents CSF flow
b) Communicating - blockage elsewhere e.g subarachnoid space or granulations causes CSF blockage and hydrocephalus
What happens if hydrocephalus occurs before the skull bones have fused?
An increase in CSF volume leads to an increase in ___ ___.
What happens to the brain in response to raised intracranial pressure?
Why is brain herniation so dangerous?
Compression of cranial nerves and centres
How is cerebral perfusion pressure calculated?
MAP - ICP
What are the symptoms of a raised ICP?
What are some examples of space occupying lesions?
Why are the focal headaches associated with SOLs worse in the morning?
During sleep you become slightly hypercapnic
Which increases pressure
On which side of the tentorium cerebelli do brain tumours tend to arise in
Brain tumours most commonly found in the population are (primary / secondary).
metastatic cancers from liver, breast, lungs...
Why are all brain tumours considered dangerous?
Even benign tumours grow slowly
What is the most common type of primary brain tumour in adults?
Astrocytoma (tumour of astrocytes, supporting cells)
Which grade of astrocytoma does not progress?
Who tends to get them?
Which grades of astrocytoma have the potential to become very malignant?
II, III and IV
What is a Grade IV astrocytoma called?
What is the 2nd most common primary brain tumour in children?
Where in the brain is it found?
Medulloblastomas are (well / poorly) differentiated and have a (good / poor) prognosis.
What therapy is medulloblastoma susceptible to?
What is an abscess?
Empty space filled with pus
What are the symptoms of a brain abscess?
And raised ICP symptoms (headache, N&V, visual problems, neck stiffness)
How are brain abscesses investigated and treated?
Brain imaging (CT / MRI)
Aspiration > Antibiotics
What is meant by missile and non-missile trauma?
Missile - penetrating
Non-missile - blunt
Penetrating head trauma tends to affect a ___ area.
The greater the ___ of a projectile, the greater the size of the injury it causes.
What happens to the head in a blunt force injury?
Sudden change in momentum