Flashcards in 7 Organic Trilogy and Seperate 1 Deck (21)
What is crude oil?
A mixture of hydrocarbons
What is crude oil formed from?
The remains of ancient biomass (mostly plankton) that was buried in mud
What is a finite resource?
One that will run out
Why is crude oil a finite resource?
Because it takes longer to form than the rate at which we are using it up
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound made of atoms of carbon and hydrogen only
What is a general formula?
A mathematical formula which allows you to work out the chemical formula of a substance
What is an alkane?
A hydrocarbon with only single bonds
Name the first four alkanes
Methane, ethane, propane, butane
What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2 (the n and 2n are small)
How does boiling point change with the length of an alkane?
The longer the alkane, the higher its boiling point
How does viscosity change with the length of an alkane?
The longer the alkane, the more viscous (the thicker) it is
How does flammability change with the length of an alkane?
The longer the alkane, the less flammable it is
What is fractional distillation?
A process used to separate mixtures of substances with different boiling points
What are the steps involved in fractional distillation?
Crude oil is vaporised, different molecules rise up the fractionating column and cool down. Condense at different points on the column.
Why is fractional distillation important?
Because the different fractions have different uses
What is a fuel?
A substance which when reacted with oxygen releases energy
Name five fuels we obtain from crude oil
Petrol, diesel, kerosene, heavy fuel oil and liquefied petroleum gases
What other uses are there for products of fractional distillation?
Solvents, lubricants, polymers and detergents
What is combustion?
The reaction of a fuel with oxygen
What are the products of complete combustion?
Carbon dioxide and water