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Flashcards in 7 Organic Seperate 1 Deck (30)
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1

What are alkenes

A different type of hydrocarbon which is more reactive than an alkane

2

What are alkenes used for?

As a starting material to make more useful chemicals

3

How do you test for an alkene?

React it with bromine water

4

What is the colour change when an alkene reacts with bromine water?

Turns from orange to colourless

5

What is an alkene?

A hydrocarbon with a double bond

6

What is the general formula for alkenes?

CnH2n

7

What does unsaturated means?

Contains double bonds (which could become C-H bonds)

8

What are the first four alkenes?

Ethene, propene, butene, pentene

9

What are the four reactions of alkenes?

Combustion, with water, with hydrogen and with halogens

10

How is the combustion of alkenes different to combustion of alkanes?

Alkenes usually react by incomplete combustion so burn with smoky flames

11

Why are the reactions of alkenes with hydrogen, water and halogens known as "addition" reactions?

Because new atoms are being added to the molecule by breaking the double bond

12

What is the product from the reaction of an alkene with hydrogen?

An alkane

13

What conditions are necessary in the reaction of alkenes with hydrogen?

60oC, Nickel catalyst

14

What is the product from the reaction of an alkene with a halogen?

An alkane with two halogen atoms where the double bond used to be

15

What is the product from the reaction of an alkene with steam?

An alcohol

16

What conditions are necessary for the reaction of alkenes with steam?

High temperature, high pressure, catalyst

17

What functional group do all alcohols have?

OH

18

Name and draw the first four alcohols

Methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol (ethanol pictured)

19

What happens when an alcohol reacts with sodium?

It forms a sodium salt (e.g. sodium ethoxide from ethanol) and releases hydrogen gas.

20

What are the products of a combustion reaction involving an alcohol and oxygen?

Carbon dioxide and water

21

Write a symbol equation for the reaction of methanol/ethanol/propanol/butanol with oxygen

E.g CH3CH2OH + 5O2 gives 2CO2 + 3H2O

22

Do alcohols dissolve in water?

Yes, they form neutral solutions

23

How do alcohols react with oxidizing agents?

They turn into carboxylic acids

24

What are the main uses of alcohols?

Solvents, ethanol used as drinking alcohol and a biofuel

25

What is fermentation?

The process of turning glucose (a natural sugar) into ethanol

26

What is required for natural fermentation?

Yeast

27

What functional groups do all carboxylic acids have?

COOH

28

Name and draw the first four carboxylic acids

Methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid (image is ethanoic acid)

29

Why are carboxylic acids weak acids?

Not all their molecules ionise when in water

30

What is the product of a reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid?

An ester