Flashcards in 7.1 - Structure and Provision of Services Deck (43):
What are the 3 care sectors?
* Statutory/public sector
What is the independent sector?
The independent sector consists of informal carers and private companies.
What is the private sector?
The private sector is available to anyone who can afford to pay for it.
What is the voluntary sector?
Care services that are provided free of charge or for a small, subsided fee by non-profit making organisations.
What are informal carers?
Informal carers are friends or relatives who provide care on an unpaid basis.
Laws that are passed by parliament.
What is the statutory / public sector?
Care services are provided by law and are free at the point of service.
Define "mixed economy of care"
A care system that combines public, private, voluntary and informal sector provision ie funding comes from all sectors.
Describe the structure of the NHS in England
England has a mixed economy of care meaning care professionals from various sectors work together to provide service users with individualised care that meets their individual needs. There care system is constantly changing due to new policies and approaches to care delivery. Statutory health care is mainly organised and provided through the NHS. In addition, private businesses, the voluntary sector e.g. charities and also informal carers provide health and social care services to help reduce the pressure of the NHS.
Outline The Disability Discrimination Act 1995
Prevents discrimination against people with disabilities in the areas of employment, access to education and transport, housing and obtaining goods and services.
Who does The Disability Discrimination Act protect?
People with learning difficulties, hearing issues, sight issues, heart conditions, mental health problems…..
What are the strengths of The Disability Discrimination Act?
* Eliminates discrimination
* Recognised by all public bodies
* Provides a positive environment
What are the weaknesses of The Disability Discrimination Act?
* Not everyone is aware of their rights
* May be difficult to change people's attitudes
Outline The Children Act 1989.
Children are given certain legal rights whilst legal duties are imposed on parents and carers to promote each child's welfare and to protect them from abuse. Services must be provided for those children assessed as being in need. Every Child Matters outlined the aims - to minimise risks for all children and support them to: be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.
This act encourages multidiciplinary working.
What are the strengths of The Children Act 1989?
*Protects children from harm and allows them to be heard *Support given to parents and families encouraged to stay together
*Clear guidelines are set
*Information data base to prevent children slipping through the net.
*Proactive rather than reactive
What are the weaknesses of The Children Act 1989?
*Difficult to explain rights to a child
*Communication errors between agencies
*Who is accountable?
*Families under greater scrutiny
*Children still slipping through net
Outline The Human Rights Act 1998
Makes it unlawful for a public authority such as the NHS to act in a way that is incompatible with any of the rights agreed under the European Convention e.g. article 2: right to life and article 3: prohibition of torture.
What are the strengths of The Human Rights Act 1998?
*Promotes overall wellbeing
*All individuals are seen as equal
What are the weaknesses of The Human Rights Act?
*Difficult to police
*Open to misinterpretation
Outline The Mental Health Act 1983
*Lays down the rules for compulsory admission to hospital if a person poses a risk to themselves or the health and safety of others.
*The act ensures that the service users rights are implemented throughout their care and also gives them the right to an advocate.
What are the strengths of The Mental Health Act 1983?
*People experienceing a mental disorder may not be able to make their own decision
*Resolves dispute between care workers and families *Appeals process *Clear guidelines and regulations
What are the weakensses of The Mental Health Act 1983?
*People experiencing a mental disorder may not be able to assert their rights
*Hard to diagnose someone with a mental disorder.
Outline the NHS and Community Care Act 1990
*Every local authority is now legally bound to assess the care needs of any person with a physical disability, terminal illness, sensory impairment, learning difficulty or mental health problem.
*Introduced “Community Care” where people with chronic or long term care needs would no longer have to live in state-run institutions but would instead be provided with sufficient support to live in their own homes.
*Introduced mixed economy of care
What are the strengths of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990?
*Encouraged the development of private and voluntary sector
*Promotes high standards
*Consistent approach to care
*Service user fully involved
What are the weaknesses of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990?
*Service user may not be aware of their needs
*Treatment may be rushed because of time presures *Increased cost to NHS
What are primary care services?
These are 'first contact' services provided in a community setting to treat everyday or less serious ailments, illnesses or minor injuries eg nurses, GP's.
What are secondary care services?
These are complex interventions provided after a person has been diagnosed and referred for treatment eg cardiologist.
What are the advantages of the private sector?
*Provides choice and alternatives
*Higher quality care
*Takes burden off the state
*Quicker response time / shorter waiting lists
What are the disadvantages of the private sector?
*Pushes out the voluntary sector as they cannot compete *Profit orientated
*Creates inequality / social divide
What are the disadvantages of the voluntary sector?
*Relies on donations *Potential stigma attached
What are the advantages of the voluntary sector?
*Fills gap left by statutory sector
*Takes strain off of state
*Provide a range of care services
*More flexible and adaptable
*Good at reaching remote areas
*Can bring a great deal of expertise eg Macmillan nurses *Not interested in profit
What are the benefits of a mixed economy of care?
*Choice *Flexibility *Cost effective *Makes good use of resources *Creates competition between providers which drives up standards *Reduces strain on state *Independence promoted
Why is it important for central government to regularly review legislation?
* Close loopholes
* Reflect social changes
* Promote social inclusion
* Promote human rights
* Identify what is working and what is not
* Ensure legislation is robust
* Ensure that vulnerable people are protected
* Promote standards
Opposal to the unjust and prejudice treatment of different categories of people.
What is the "paramountcy principle"?
The principle of putting the welfare of the child first in all decisions affecting them.
What are tertiary health care services?
Care services for people who have chronic or terminal health care needs.
What is social care?
Any form of non-medical care that aims to provide support for vulnerable groups eg elderly, children, people with disabilities. Social care is provided by statutory, private and voluntary sector.
What is a provider organisation?
A care organisation that delivers care services directly to the service user.
What is a purchaser organisation?
An organisation that buys care services on behalf of an individual or group.
What is the "internal market"?
A market in care services that was introduced in the early 1990's to promote competition between statutory and other care providers. NHS and local authority social service departments are split in to purchaser and provider sections.
What were Beveridge's 5 evils?
*Want - poverty
*Disease - health
*Ignorance - lack of education
*Squalor - poor quality housing
*Idleness - unemployment
What are the advantages of the internal market?
*Create competition between providers which increases standards
*Create choice for purchsers
*Cut costs as providers try to win contracts
*Reduce inefficiency and save money