7.4 Agents of Bacterial Gastrointestinal Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7.4 Agents of Bacterial Gastrointestinal Infections Deck (52)
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1

Important cause of food poisoning

S. aureus

2

S. aureus can produce ____, ____ or _____

Enterotoxins
Leukotoxins
Toxic shock syndrome toxin

3

More recently studies as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea

S. aureus

4

Etiologic agent of the acute febrile gastroenteritis that caused an outbreak due to contaminated chocolate milk

L. monocytogenes

5

Linked to chocolate milk, lunch meats, unpasteurized cheeses

L. monocytogenes

6

Agent that causes watery diarrhea and fever accompanied by myalgias, arthralgias, headache, fatigue or sleepiness (febrile gastroenteritis)

L. monocytogenes

7

Treatment of invasive L. monocytogenes infection

Ampicillin
Penicillin G

8

Important cause of nosocomial and community-acquired diarrhea
Production of enterotoxin A and cytotoxin B

C. difficile

9

Agent that causes watery or rarely bloody diarrhea, lower abdominal cramping, fever and leukocytosis

C. difficile

10

Screening for C. difficile infection

Glutamate dehydrogenase Ag >> confirm for toxin A and B with EIA or PCR

11

Treatment of mild to moderate C. difficile infection

Metronidazole (250 mg QID or 500 mg TID)
Vancomycin (125 mg QID for 10-14 days)

12

Cause illness by enterotoxin prodcution or adherence to the brush border causing effacement of cells

E. coli

13

Agent that causes illness with typical presentation of nausea, vomiting, low-grade fever followed by severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

E. coli

14

Major cause of traveler's diarrhea

ETEC, EAEC

15

Important cause bacterial diarrhea in children and chronic diarrhea in persons with HIV

EAEC

16

Increasingly a cause of foodborne illness

ETEC

17

Cause of diarrhea in children less than 2 years old

DAEC

18

Uncommon but may cause severe dehydration or malnutrition especially in chronic infections

EPEC

19

E. coli treatment

Rehydration therapy
Fluroquinolones
TMP-SMX
Azithromycin or rifaximin for traveler's diarrhea

20

Principal cause of traveler's diarrhea and spread via contaminated food or water

ETEC

21

Virulence factor of ETEC that binds the bacteria to the enterocytes in the SI

Fimbrial adhesins

22

Lack ST and LT toxins but use intimin to bind host intestinal cells

EPEC

23

They have the fimbriae which aggregate tissue culture cells
Noninvasive
Produce hemolysin and ST enterotoxin

EAEC

24

Noninvasive but produces two toxins: Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2

STEC

25

Invades the epithelium and produces a self-limited watery diarrhea or dysentery

EIEC

26

EIEC illness is mild and can be treated with ____ or ____

FQ
Azithromycin

27

E. coli O157 strain often localizes to the ____ and the illness may be mistaken for ____

Right colon;
Ischemic colitis, intussusepcion, inflammatory bowel disease

28

Most dreaded complication of E. coli infection that may lead to renal failure, seizure and death (STEC)

TTP-HUS

29

Highly contagious, requiring only less than 100 organisms
Humans are only natural host

Shigella spp

30

Virulence factor of Shigella spp

Enterotoxins

31

Agent that causes 2-day prodrome of constitutional symptoms and secretory diarrhea, followed by diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps and tenesmus

Shigella spp

32

Shigella colitis predominantly involves the ___ and ____

Left colon
Rectum

33

Treatment of Shigella infection

ORT
TMP-SMX, FQ, azithromycin, 2nd or 3rd gen cephalosporin, rifaximin

34

Invasive organism that produces an inflammatory response which can lead to edema, mucosal bleeding, formaiton of microabscesses and ulcerations

Campylobacter spp

35

Campylobacterosis is primarily foodborne illness with ___ being the leading source of infection
Contaminated milk, eggs, water

Poultry

36

Campylobacterosis complication

Inflammatory bowel disease
Reactive arthritis
Guillain-Barre syndrome

37

Treatment of campylobacterosis

Macrolides, FQ

38

Treatment of salmonellosis with severe symptoms and with systemic involvement

FQ, ceftriaxone, azithromycin

39

Nonspecific symptoms (fever, chills)
Right lower quadrant pain with diarrhea and rose spots

Typhoid fever

40

Typhoid fever complications

Encephalopathy, meningitis, seizures, endocarditis, myocarditis, pneumonia, cholecystitis

41

Salmonella early diagnosis specimen

Blood

42

Salmonella late diagnosis specimen

Stool

43

Treatment of salmonella infection

FQ

44

Ingestion of contaminated milk products or prok

Yersinia spp.

45

Common cause of acute colitis with abdominal pain (RLQ), fever, and diarrhea which may be bloody
Mimic appendicitis, Crohn's disease

Yersinia spp.

46

Antibiotics for yersinia infection

FQ, TMP-SMX or doxycycline + aminioglycoside

47

Causes epidemics of dehydrating diarrhea affecting all ages

Vibrio cholerae

48

Cholera is associated with ingestion of ____

Undercooked seafood

49

Vibrio cholerae colonizes the ____, and causes diarrhea by stimulating ____

Upper small intestine;
cAMP-mediated chloride secretion

50

Cholera oral vaccines

WC-rBS and BivWC

51

Cause small outbreaks usually associated with undercooked shellfish
Patients with chronic liver disease are at risk

Non-cholera Vibrio spp.

52

Treatment for severe non-cholera vibirio

Tetracycline, azithromycin, FQ