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61

Interpolation and extrapolation

construct data of unsampled values within the range of the sampled instances and extrapolate beyond the sampled range

62

Causal explanation

develop and test explanatory theories about pattern of effects

63

The Kuhnian critique about the scientific revolution

consisted of many different and incomparable paradigms; theory-free observation is impossible

64

According to Ellis 1991b, aim of science

1. what (observe and describe) 2. why (explain and predict)

65

Main points of Ellis 1991b

1. Supervision models not tested empirically; poorly organized
2. Supervisors must be critical consumers of research and pursue scientifically rigorous research
3. Primary aim of science is theory

66

Rules of science according to Ellis 1991b

1) need to be explicit about propositions and list one’s biases
2) acknowledge the theory influence guiding research
3) focus on scientific rigor rather than type of research for critique
4) focus on empirically validation and foster rival explanations

67

paradigm (Ponterotto 2005)

set of interrelated assumptions about the social world which provides a philosophical and conceptual framework for the organized study of that world

68

positivism (Ponterotto 2005)

form of philosophical realism, belief in tightly controlled experimental study, theory verification

69

postpositivism- (Ponterotto 2005)

updated positivism, belief in an imperfectly apprehendable objective reality, theory falsification

70

constructivism-interpretivism (Ponterotto 2005)

relativist, assumes multiple equally valid and apprehendable realities constructed in mind of each individual, brought to light via intense researcher-participant interaction

71

critical-ideological (Ponterotto 2005)

disrupt and challenges status quo – no one theory, but sees criticalist as central tool who uses his work for social criticism; focus on power relations

72

ontology/nature of reality and being (Ponterotto 2005)

1) positivists: there is 1 reality (naïve realism)
2) postpositivists: there is 1 reality but it is imperfectly understood
3) constructionism: multiple constructed realities, subjective
4) critical-ideological: reality is shaped by environment and power relations

73

- epistemology/relationship between knower (participant) and would-be-knower (researcher) (Ponterotto 2005)

1) positivists: emphasize objectivism, everything assumed to be independent, no bias
2) postpos: acknowledges researcher may have bias, but objectivity is a guideline
3) const-int: subjective, reality is socially constructed, interaction between researcher and participant is central to describing the “lived experience” of the participant
4) crit-ide: work collaboratively through interactions toward empowerment

74

- axiology/role of researcher in scientific process (Ponterotto 2005)

1) positivists and postpose: no place for values in research process
2) const-int: researcher’s values need to acknowledge own values but not eliminate
3) crit-ide: hope and expect value biases to influence the research process/outcome

75

realist’s view of science (Heppner et al. 1992)

1) Knowledge is a social and historical product and cannot be obtained only by studying individual in isolation
2) Experiences of an individual, observable or not, are appropriate topics of study
3) Focus of research should not be on events and relationships among events, but on underlying causal properties of structures

76

what is the importance of being trained in and incorporating scientific thinking in practice? (Heppner et al. 1992)

hypothesize about client, collect data, test, develop model, and predict (Pepinsky)

77

Philosophy of science (Corso, 1967)

makes explicit and systematize basic assumptions about the world

78

Guidelines for scientific method (Corso, 1967)

1. distinguish between observations and inferences
2. selection of a problem, which is simplified to a specific question
3. come up with a hypothesis
4. design a controlled testing situation (that’s appropriate for the question)
5. analyze and interpret the data
6. evaluate findings and generalize findings

79

science (Corso, 1967)

continuous, cumulative and self-correcting, therefore students need to develop questioning attitudes

79

determinism is associated with (Corso, 1967)...

the notion of control (e.g., in conducting experiments) and prediction

80

Understanding consists of (Corso, 1967)

description (classification, ordering, correlational) and explanation.

81

Assumptions that scientists make (Corso, 1967)

orderly universe, space, time, and matter

82

main point of Chamberlin 1897 article

multiple working hypotheses

83

two modes of thinking (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) imitative, repetitive (b) creative and independent - can look at old subject matter but critically and through a new lens

84

3 phases in the history of mental evolution (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) ruling theory (b) working hypothesis (c) multiple working hypotheses

85

ruling theory (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) the need to provide an explanation even before evidence is found
(b) attachment to a given theory - biases that limit different views, increased tendency to fit data to theory
(c) how a theory becomes a ruling theory: premature explanation -> tentative theory -> adopted theory-> ruling theory

86

working hypothesis (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) used as a means to determine facts rather than to establish a proposition
(b) is a mode rather than an end (which acc to Chamberlin, is what the ruing theory was)
(c) as likely to gain attachment to a working hypothesis - can become the controlling idea

87

multiple working hypotheses (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) to overcome the notion of controlling idea, use multiple working hypotheses
(b) allows complexity, avoids notion of singular cause

88

According to Platt (1967), * certain fields advance at a greater speed because

of an accepted method of doing things that is taught systematically and is accumulative

89

According to Platt (1967), * need to teach how to

sharpen inductive inferences