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Interpolation and extrapolation

construct data of unsampled values within the range of the sampled instances and extrapolate beyond the sampled range


Causal explanation

develop and test explanatory theories about pattern of effects


The Kuhnian critique about the scientific revolution

consisted of many different and incomparable paradigms; theory-free observation is impossible


According to Ellis 1991b, aim of science

1. what (observe and describe) 2. why (explain and predict)


Main points of Ellis 1991b

1. Supervision models not tested empirically; poorly organized
2. Supervisors must be critical consumers of research and pursue scientifically rigorous research
3. Primary aim of science is theory


Rules of science according to Ellis 1991b

1) need to be explicit about propositions and list one’s biases
2) acknowledge the theory influence guiding research
3) focus on scientific rigor rather than type of research for critique
4) focus on empirically validation and foster rival explanations


paradigm (Ponterotto 2005)

set of interrelated assumptions about the social world which provides a philosophical and conceptual framework for the organized study of that world


positivism (Ponterotto 2005)

form of philosophical realism, belief in tightly controlled experimental study, theory verification


postpositivism- (Ponterotto 2005)

updated positivism, belief in an imperfectly apprehendable objective reality, theory falsification


constructivism-interpretivism (Ponterotto 2005)

relativist, assumes multiple equally valid and apprehendable realities constructed in mind of each individual, brought to light via intense researcher-participant interaction


critical-ideological (Ponterotto 2005)

disrupt and challenges status quo – no one theory, but sees criticalist as central tool who uses his work for social criticism; focus on power relations


ontology/nature of reality and being (Ponterotto 2005)

1) positivists: there is 1 reality (naïve realism)
2) postpositivists: there is 1 reality but it is imperfectly understood
3) constructionism: multiple constructed realities, subjective
4) critical-ideological: reality is shaped by environment and power relations


- epistemology/relationship between knower (participant) and would-be-knower (researcher) (Ponterotto 2005)

1) positivists: emphasize objectivism, everything assumed to be independent, no bias
2) postpos: acknowledges researcher may have bias, but objectivity is a guideline
3) const-int: subjective, reality is socially constructed, interaction between researcher and participant is central to describing the “lived experience” of the participant
4) crit-ide: work collaboratively through interactions toward empowerment


- axiology/role of researcher in scientific process (Ponterotto 2005)

1) positivists and postpose: no place for values in research process
2) const-int: researcher’s values need to acknowledge own values but not eliminate
3) crit-ide: hope and expect value biases to influence the research process/outcome


realist’s view of science (Heppner et al. 1992)

1) Knowledge is a social and historical product and cannot be obtained only by studying individual in isolation
2) Experiences of an individual, observable or not, are appropriate topics of study
3) Focus of research should not be on events and relationships among events, but on underlying causal properties of structures


what is the importance of being trained in and incorporating scientific thinking in practice? (Heppner et al. 1992)

hypothesize about client, collect data, test, develop model, and predict (Pepinsky)


Philosophy of science (Corso, 1967)

makes explicit and systematize basic assumptions about the world


Guidelines for scientific method (Corso, 1967)

1. distinguish between observations and inferences
2. selection of a problem, which is simplified to a specific question
3. come up with a hypothesis
4. design a controlled testing situation (that’s appropriate for the question)
5. analyze and interpret the data
6. evaluate findings and generalize findings


science (Corso, 1967)

continuous, cumulative and self-correcting, therefore students need to develop questioning attitudes


determinism is associated with (Corso, 1967)...

the notion of control (e.g., in conducting experiments) and prediction


Understanding consists of (Corso, 1967)

description (classification, ordering, correlational) and explanation.


Assumptions that scientists make (Corso, 1967)

orderly universe, space, time, and matter


main point of Chamberlin 1897 article

multiple working hypotheses


two modes of thinking (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) imitative, repetitive (b) creative and independent - can look at old subject matter but critically and through a new lens


3 phases in the history of mental evolution (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) ruling theory (b) working hypothesis (c) multiple working hypotheses


ruling theory (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) the need to provide an explanation even before evidence is found
(b) attachment to a given theory - biases that limit different views, increased tendency to fit data to theory
(c) how a theory becomes a ruling theory: premature explanation -> tentative theory -> adopted theory-> ruling theory


working hypothesis (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) used as a means to determine facts rather than to establish a proposition
(b) is a mode rather than an end (which acc to Chamberlin, is what the ruing theory was)
(c) as likely to gain attachment to a working hypothesis - can become the controlling idea


multiple working hypotheses (Chamberlin, 1897)

(a) to overcome the notion of controlling idea, use multiple working hypotheses
(b) allows complexity, avoids notion of singular cause


According to Platt (1967), * certain fields advance at a greater speed because

of an accepted method of doing things that is taught systematically and is accumulative


According to Platt (1967), * need to teach how to

sharpen inductive inferences