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What is qualitative research?

A means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem


What are typical qualities of qualitative research?

The process of research involves emerging questions and procedures
Data typically collected in the participant's setting
Data analysis inductively building from particulars to general themes
The researcher makes interpretations of the meaning of the data
Flexible structure to final written report


Those engaging in qualitative research tend to honor

Inductive style
Focus on individual meaning
Importance of rendering complexity of a situation


What is quantitative research?

A means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables
These variables can be measured, typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analyzed using statistical procedures


What are typical qualities of quantitative research?

Set structure for final written report (introduction, literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion


Those engaging in quantitative research tend to honor

Testing theories deductively
Building in protections against bias
Controlling for alternative explanations
Generality and replicating findings


What are mixed methods?

An approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms.
Involves more than simply collecting and analyzing both types of data; also involves the use of both approaches in tandem to improve overall strength of the study



item response theory - model-based measurement; individual item responses are modeled. Estimates to represent the person and psychometric properties of the items



classical test theory - main target is total score, not item responses