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90

According to Platt (1967), shouldn’t be _______, rather _______.

method-oriented, problem-oriented

91

According to Platt (1967), science only advances with

disconfirming evidence

92

According to Platt (1967), Chamberlin’s proposal of multiple hypotheses

is right on! cure to being too narrow in view. Forces one to look at alternative hypotheses

93

According to Platt (1967), statistics

1. are tools, but need to be flexible in using them. 2. Don't be overreliant on statistics and methodology

94

What are the main points of Serlin (1987)?

addresses inappropriate sampling procedures, hypothesis-testing procedures, and the notion of atheoretical research

95

According to Serlin (1987), Sampling

(a) difficulty of true random sampling in psychology, and the tendency to use samples of convenience
(b) notion of representative sample: and what demographics are important is determined by the questions asked (race, gender, SES etc.) “good enough” sampling
(c) theory must guide the selection of sampling procedure, and in what ways it must be representative
(d) random sample allows generalizability to sampled population, and a non-random sample allows generalizations to a hypothetical population

96

According to Serlin (1987), Philosophy of Science and Statistics (7 points)

(a) cannot prove theories but can certainly disprove them
(b) critiques the role of statistics when it is used as a replacement for really thinking about the results
(c) use theory as a basis for the interpretation of statistics
(d) statistical results can be used to inform theories
(e) need to use tests and confidence interval procedures that help determine the size of the observed effect
(f) any theoretical development results in differentiating between relevant and less relevant variables - these theories need to be tested
(g) stats and theory inform each other

97

What are the main points of Skinner (1956)?

1. empirical analysis is better than a formal one 2. graduate school doesn’t really teach its students to become scientists because most programs explicitly focus on model building and theory construction in stats - which is only a method of science (distinction between scientific research and stats) 3. * difficulties of a practicing scientist as work habits haven’t been formalized 4.

98

According to Skinner (1956), case studies may illustrate...

(a) Shift gears upon unexpected findings
(b) flexibility in research design;
(c) different types of measurements can be informative
(d) never felt the need to use explicit formal hypotheses
(e) larger samples and greater number of apparatuses, lower the flexibility (modifications become more cumbersome)
(f) recognize that common suggestions such as increasing n to get significance may not be as practically useful as exploring the existing research design and looking at the variables - explore the why behind discrepancy between data and the theory

99

According to Skinner (1956), * purpose of experimental analysis of behavior is to

devise techniques that reduce effects of idiosyncrasies unless that is what is being observed

100

According to Skinner (1956), stats can be useful but

it is problematic when used blindly

101

According to Kerlinger and Lee, data is defined as

the research results from which inferences are drawn (usually numerical).

101

According to Kerlinger and Lee, research data is defined as

the result of systematic observation and analysis used to make inferences and arrive at conclusions

102

According to Kerlinger and Lee, analysis is defined as

the categorizing, ordering, manipulating, and summarizing of data to obtain answers to research questions

103

According to Kerlinger and Lee, the purpose of analysis is

to reduce data to intelligible and interpretable form so relationships of research problems can be studied and tested.

104

According to Kerlinger and Lee, the purpose of statistics is

manipulate and summarize numerical data and to compare the obtained results to chance expectations.

105

According to Kerlinger and Lee, interpretation functions to

takes the results of analysis, makes inferences pertinent to the research relations studied, and draws conclusions about these relations

106

According to Kerlinger and Lee, 2 methods of interpretation

1. The relations within the research study and its data are interpreted. 2. The broader meaning of research data is sought.

107

According to Kerlinger and Lee: Quantitative data come in 2 general forms

frequencies and continuous measures

108

According to Kerlinger and Lee: continuous measures are

associated with continuous variables

109

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • Frequencies are

the numbers of objects in sets and subsets

110

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • The first step in any analysis is

Categorization

111

According to Kerlinger and Lee: Five rules for categorization

1. Categories are set up according to the research problem and purpose. 2. The categories are exhaustive. 3. The categories are mutually exclusive and independent. 4. Each category is derived from one classification principle. 5. Any categorization scheme must be on one level of discourse (conceptual clarity).

112

According to Kerlinger and Lee: Frequency Distributions

1. Primarily used for descriptive purposes 2. Can be used for other research purposes (compare test score distributions) 3. used for descriptive purposes

113

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • Graphs and Graphing

1. Powerful tool of analysis. 2. A two dimensional representation of a relation or relations. 3. Displays relations and their nature (strength, direction, linearity/non-linearity)

114

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • Measures of Relations

1. Product-moment coefficient of correlation, correlation ratio, etc. 2. Express the extent to which the pairs of sets or ordered pairs vary concomitantly. 3. Show magnitude and (usually) the direction of the relation.

115

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • Analysis of Variance and Related Methods

method of identifying, breaking down, and testing for statistical significance variances that come from the different sources of variation

116

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • Profile Analysis

the assessment of similarities of the profiles of individuals or groups

117

According to Kerlinger and Lee: • Multivariate Analysis

general term used to categorize a family of analytical methods whose chief characteristic is the simultaneous analysis of k independent variables and m dependent variables

118

According to Kerlinger and Lee: Multiple regression

analyzes the common and separate influences of two or more independent variables on dependent variables