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Flashcards in 7A/7B Deck (20):

What is neuropsychology?

Study of relationship between brain function and behavior


How were brains studied in the olden days? 1800's

Dead peoples brains and animals brains. Behavior of individuals with brain damage.


Who is Tan? What deficits did he have? Where was there a hole in Tan's brain?

Broca studied Tan's brain. Tan had speech deficits. Broca found a huge hole in the Broca's area.


Damage to which area or part of the brain result in memory disturbances?



Where is the hippocampus?

Inside of temporal lobe.


Common memory tests in humans, how does each work?

Corsi Block= tap blocks in order (spatial)
Mirror drawing task= draw star, redraw later. Learn a new skill. (Procedural learning)
Recency memory task= shown long series of cards then one card has two items on it. Patient is asked which item was seen more recently.


What memory technique is used and rodents, how does it work

Water maze. Rodents need to remember where the surface is higher they don't to swim (spatial)


What are the ways to manipulate the interaction between brain and behavior

Lesions and brain stimulation


What are lesions and what our stimulation

Lesions damage region of tissue stimulation is created by chemical or electrical. They can't be un done.


What are the two types of lesions and how do they work

Electrical lesion uses electrodes to kill nerve fibers and cells passing through that region. ALL in region die.

Chemical region has to be on soma. Won't kill a neuron if a dendrite or axon is in the region.


What tool helps to do just one area?

Stereotactic apparatus


Lateral? Medial? Dorsal? Ventral? Posterior/caudal? Anterior/rostral.

Lateral= sides
Medial= towards midline middle of brain
Dorsal= top of brain (like dolphins)
Ventral= bottom of brain line vents are at bottom
Posterior/caudal = tail
Anterior/rostral= (Ross is an ass and a dick soooo position if the dick)


What are the ways to stimulate the brain?

DBS= electrodes implanted in brain with low-voltage electrical current to facilitate behavior
Tms= (transcranial magnetic stimulation) magnetic field causes neurons in cerebral cortex to depolarize and fire
Less severe chemical than lesions
And non invasive electrical

Optogenetics: turn on and off activity in targeted and around but shining a light (neurons are not light sensitive naturally need injected in from algae) (Blue light sensitive channel turns on a neuron EPSP hypo polarization NA+ in and yellow light sensitive channel turns a neuron off IPSP CL- in, hyper polarization)


4 techniques to measure brains electrical activity

EEG measures sound graded potential's sum over all of EE PSP and IPSP. In EEG attaches electrodes to school you can see brain activity on a superficial level.

ERP event related potentials brief changes in in EEG in response to sensory stimulus. averaged ERP
From different segments on the EEG when there was a stimulus.

MEG magnetocephalography Miral activity produces a magnetic field this assesses brain activity this is general and not super precise

Single cell recording microelectrode measures activity of one single neuron it is electrical and focuses on action potentials you again using microelectrodes


What increases when brain activity increases in a region of the brain

Blood oxygen and glucose increase


What are three things that measure brain activity

MR I space PET and optical tomography


What is histology

Nero anatomy after-the-fact


What is static imaging techniques

Only structure not function the structure of LIVING human brain
a CT scan uses x-rays (computerized tomography)
the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses A magnet.


What is dynamic brain imaging

Can analyze function assesses amount of blood oxygen and glucose there is more flow of these three things when there is more activity in the brain.

Use radioactive dye into blood a lot of die in active brain regions this is a noninvasive method a PET (Positron emission tomography) and FMRi


What is microdialysis

And invasive procedure only used in animals that measures brain chemicals filter fluid and see if it contains chemicals then you move in the artificial cerebral spinal fluid
Ex check dopamine being released during a reward