8. Atypical Pneumonias Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8. Atypical Pneumonias Deck (51):
1

Genus of cell wall deficient bacteria

Mycoplasma

2

Organism w/ intrinsic resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides

Legionella pneumophila

3

Media for this organism must contain glucose and/or arginine, serum for cholesterol, and antibiotics to prevent overgrowth by other bacteria

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

4

3 types of specimens that may be sent for Aspergillus culture

- Sputum
- BAL
- Lung biopsy

5

Infective and replicative form of Chlamydophila

Infective = elementary body (EB)

Replicative = reticulate body (RB)

6

Typical abx treatment for Legionella

Macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin)

7

2 forms of legionellosis

- Legionnaire's disease
- Pontiac fever

Are actually 2 forms of legionellosis

8

Organism that may be detected by fungi-fluor (Cellufluor) or Calcofluor White WITHOUT KOH

Pneumocystis jiroveci

9

Not often implicated in human disease; species are usually inhibited at 37C

Penicillium

10

Which organism? SP4 broth and agar

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

11

Which organism? Cell culture w/ HeLA229 cells

Clamydophila pneumoniae

12

Once a rare form of pneumonia in neonates but now it's almost exclusively found in the immunocompromised

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)

13

No culture options currently exist for this organism

Pneumocystis jiroveci

14

AKA Traunt acid-fast stain

Auramine-Rhodamine

15

Mycoplasma pneumoniae atmospheric requirements

Increased moisture but NOT increased CO2

16

3 components of the Lactophenol Cotton Blue stain and their purposes

Phenol - kills live organisms

Lactic acid - preserves fungal structures

Cotton Blue Stain - stains chitin in fungal cell walls

17

Aspergillus wet prep stain

Lactophenol Cotton Blue stain

18

Organism w/ microscopic fried egg colony appearance

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

19

Requires cell lines to culture

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

20

Treatment may be switched to this antibiotic once C. pneumoniae is confirmed to be the causative agent

Doxycycline

21

Which organism? Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar

Legionella pneumoniae

22

Fluorescent acid-fast stain that attaches to the mycolic acid on cell walls

Traunt

23

Often implicated in "walking pneumonia"

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

24

Difference between Legionnaire's disease and Pontiac fever?

Legionnarie's = a pneumonia

Pontiac fever = a systemic infection, non-pneumonic

25

Will NOT grow on BAP/CHOC but will grow on BCYE

Legionella pneumophila

26

Organism found in hospital showerheads

Aspergillus spp.

27

Most common method of diagnosing M. pneumoniae

ELISA

28

What colour do AFB organisms appear as?

Dark pink/red

29

2 culture media for M. tuberculosis

Lowenstein-Jensen

Middlebrook

30

Used extensively as a last resort drug in "extensively drug resistant TB" (XDRTB)

Cycloserin

31

This organism can target any organ system; most serious infections seen in the elderly, smokers, alcoholics

Legionella pneumophila

32

Most often used as a first line antifungal

Voriconazole

33

Counterstain for acid-fast stains

Methylene blue or Brilliant Green

34

Difference between ZN and Kinyoun stain?

ZN = requires heat

Kinyoun = cold method of ZN w/ higher phenol and basic fuchsin concentration

35

How does the lab detect M. tuberculosis

Acid-Fast stain

36

How are potential Legionella specimens treated prior to media inoculation to reduce normal URT colonizers

Heat or acid treatment

37

Thin, faint gnb that may be missed in direct smears

Legionella

38

Which organism? Lowenstein-Jensen media

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

39

Atmosphere required for M. tuberculosis

10% CO2

40

M. pneumoniae is the only mycoplasma that is positive for this specific identification test

Hemadsorption

41

How are M. tuberculosis sputums processed?

(also applies to urines, skin specimens)

Liquefactionated and decontaminated (to kill most bacteria that aren't M. tuberculosis)

42

Abx to treat Legionella?

Macrolides or fluoroquinolones

43

Aspergillus specimens may be examined by this direct exam method

KOH prep w/ calcofluor white stain

Look for fungal elements

44

Unlike other pneumonias, infection by this organism rarely develops serious complications

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

45

3 second line M. tuberculosis drugs

Kanamycin
Amikacin
Capreomycin (injectable)

46

How are M. pneumoniae specimens prepared for media inoculation?

Filtered to eliminate competing yeast and bacteria

47

Associated with water and water systems, is chlorine resistant, survives a variety of temps

Legionella pneumophila

48

Old and current method of M. pneumoniae lab detection

Past: complement fixation (CF)

Current: ELISA

49

5 first line M. tuberculosis drugs

Isoniazid = INH
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide = PZA
Ethambutol - loss of colour vision
Streptomycin - ototoxic

50

Primary stain, decolourizer, and counterstain for Kinyoun acid fast?

Primary = carbol fuchsin

Decolourizer = 3% acid-alcohol

Counter = methylene blue or brilliant green

51

____________ are found in no more than 50% of M. pneumoniae infections

Cold agglutinins