8. Atypical Pneumonias Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8. Atypical Pneumonias Deck (51):
1

Genus of cell wall deficient bacteria

Mycoplasma

2

Aspergillus wet prep stain

Lactophenol Cotton Blue stain

3

Old and current method of M. pneumoniae lab detection

Past: complement fixation (CF)

Current: ELISA

4

Difference between ZN and Kinyoun stain?

ZN = requires heat

Kinyoun = cold method of ZN w/ higher phenol and basic fuchsin concentration

5

Requires cell lines to culture

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

6

Most common method of diagnosing M. pneumoniae

ELISA

7

Primary stain, decolourizer, and counterstain for Kinyoun acid fast?

Primary = carbol fuchsin

Decolourizer = 3% acid-alcohol

Counter = methylene blue or brilliant green

8

3 second line M. tuberculosis drugs

Kanamycin
Amikacin
Capreomycin (injectable)

9

Which organism? Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar

Legionella pneumoniae

10

Counterstain for acid-fast stains

Methylene blue or Brilliant Green

11

No culture options currently exist for this organism

Pneumocystis jiroveci

12

Mycoplasma pneumoniae atmospheric requirements

Increased moisture but NOT increased CO2

13

This organism can target any organ system; most serious infections seen in the elderly, smokers, alcoholics

Legionella pneumophila

14

3 types of specimens that may be sent for Aspergillus culture

- Sputum
- BAL
- Lung biopsy

15

How does the lab detect M. tuberculosis

Acid-Fast stain

16

2 culture media for M. tuberculosis

Lowenstein-Jensen

Middlebrook

17

Organism found in hospital showerheads

Aspergillus spp.

18

How are potential Legionella specimens treated prior to media inoculation to reduce normal URT colonizers

Heat or acid treatment

19

Which organism? SP4 broth and agar

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

20

Often implicated in "walking pneumonia"

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

21

Organism w/ intrinsic resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides

Legionella pneumophila

22

Thin, faint gnb that may be missed in direct smears

Legionella

23

Fluorescent acid-fast stain that attaches to the mycolic acid on cell walls

Traunt

24

Which organism? Cell culture w/ HeLA229 cells

Clamydophila pneumoniae

25

5 first line M. tuberculosis drugs

Isoniazid = INH
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide = PZA
Ethambutol - loss of colour vision
Streptomycin - ototoxic

26

Treatment may be switched to this antibiotic once C. pneumoniae is confirmed to be the causative agent

Doxycycline

27

What colour do AFB organisms appear as?

Dark pink/red

28

Organism w/ microscopic fried egg colony appearance

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

29

Organism that may be detected by fungi-fluor (Cellufluor) or Calcofluor White WITHOUT KOH

Pneumocystis jiroveci

30

Unlike other pneumonias, infection by this organism rarely develops serious complications

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

31

How are M. tuberculosis sputums processed?

(also applies to urines, skin specimens)

Liquefactionated and decontaminated (to kill most bacteria that aren't M. tuberculosis)

32

Not often implicated in human disease; species are usually inhibited at 37C

Penicillium

33

Which organism? Lowenstein-Jensen media

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

34

Most often used as a first line antifungal

Voriconazole

35

Typical abx treatment for Legionella

Macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin)

36

Abx to treat Legionella?

Macrolides or fluoroquinolones

37

Will NOT grow on BAP/CHOC but will grow on BCYE

Legionella pneumophila

38

Used extensively as a last resort drug in "extensively drug resistant TB" (XDRTB)

Cycloserin

39

Once a rare form of pneumonia in neonates but now it's almost exclusively found in the immunocompromised

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)

40

Aspergillus specimens may be examined by this direct exam method

KOH prep w/ calcofluor white stain

Look for fungal elements

41

How are M. pneumoniae specimens prepared for media inoculation?

Filtered to eliminate competing yeast and bacteria

42

AKA Traunt acid-fast stain

Auramine-Rhodamine

43

Difference between Legionnaire's disease and Pontiac fever?

Legionnarie's = a pneumonia

Pontiac fever = a systemic infection, non-pneumonic

44

____________ are found in no more than 50% of M. pneumoniae infections

Cold agglutinins

45

Atmosphere required for M. tuberculosis

10% CO2

46

2 forms of legionellosis

- Legionnaire's disease
- Pontiac fever

Are actually 2 forms of legionellosis

47

Media for this organism must contain glucose and/or arginine, serum for cholesterol, and antibiotics to prevent overgrowth by other bacteria

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

48

3 components of the Lactophenol Cotton Blue stain and their purposes

Phenol - kills live organisms

Lactic acid - preserves fungal structures

Cotton Blue Stain - stains chitin in fungal cell walls

49

M. pneumoniae is the only mycoplasma that is positive for this specific identification test

Hemadsorption

50

Associated with water and water systems, is chlorine resistant, survives a variety of temps

Legionella pneumophila

51

Infective and replicative form of Chlamydophila

Infective = elementary body (EB)

Replicative = reticulate body (RB)