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Flashcards in 8. Lower Respiratory Deck (63):
1

B. pertussis toxin that causes inflammation and localized necrosis adjacent to colonized sites

Lethal toxin

2

4 additional media to set up when there's a possibility of anaerobes

BRUC
CNA
KVLB
THIO

3

3 Bordetella pertussis toxins

- Pertussis toxin (PTx)
- Lethal toxin (dermonecrotic toxin)
- Tracheal cytotoxin

4

Lab method of detecting Histoplasma and Blastomyces

DNA probes

5

2 media commonly used to isolate Burkholderia cepacia

BCSA (Burkholderia Cepacia selective agar)

OFPBL (oxidative fermentative polymixin bacitracin lactose agar)

6

Most studied toxin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Endotoxin A

7

What is used for tuberculosis liquefaction

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (mucolytic agent)

8

What is used for tuberculosis decontamination?

2% NaOH (4% for stools + specimens w/ Pseudo)

Buffer to neutralize

9

Specimen is usually not collected for this infection b/c it's NOT treated w/ antibiotics

Acute/chronic bronchitis

10

Typical age group that gets bronchiolitis

Young children (<2 yrs old)

11

Localized, irreversible dilation of parts of the bronchial tree - makes CF infections more hard to treat

Bronchiectasis

12

Fluids from an inflammatory process

Exudate

13

What is required to distinguish between bronchitis colonization from infection

Radiographic evidence of pneumonia

14

Early symptoms are similar to common cold, then breathing becomes more laboured and cough increases

Bronchiolitis

15

Purpose of a protected bronch brush

Avoid NOF

16

6 obligate intracellular parasites

- M. tuberculosis
- Legionella pneumophila
- Chlamydophila
- viruses
- Pneumocystis jiroveci
- Histoplasma

17

7 organisms that express polysaccharide capsules to prevent phagocytosis

"Some Nasty Killers Have Crazy Powers"

- S. pneumo
- N. meningitidis
- K. pneumo
- H. influenzae
- Histoplasma capsulatum
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa

18

C. diphtheriae toxin

DT (diphtheria toxin)

19

Inflammation of lower respiratory tract involving airways and lung parenchyma

Pneumonia

20

This media is NOT selective, so decontamination + concentration of specimen is done BEFORE inoculation

Lowenstein-Jensen

21

The causes of this infection are closely related to age of patient

Community-acquired pneumonia

22

Legionella often require these 2 ingredients to be cultured

L-cysteine
Iron salts

23

Difference between BCA and BCSA media?

BCSA is a pyruvate formula

24

Toxin that destroys WBCs?

Organism it's found in?

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)

S. aureus

25

3 organisms that often accompany anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia

S. aureus
Pseudomonads
Enterobacteriaceae

26

2 types of specimens that may require special anaerobe media for set up

BAL
pleural fluid

27

Sterile saline is flushed into the lungs, then aspirated back out

Bronchioalveolar lavages (BALs)

28

Routine culture set up for LRT specimen (media)

BAP/SS/CO2
CHOC/CO2
MAC

29

Reason for S. maltophilia being often confused w/ an Enterobacteriacea

It is oxidase negative

30

Also called dermonecrotic toxin

Lethal toxin (B. pertussis)

31

Diphtheria toxin (DT) adheres preferentially to these 2 types of cells

- CNS cells
- Heart muscle cells

32

Adherence factor in staph

Lipoteichoic acid

33

Helps B. pertussis colonize the cilia of the respiratory epithelium

Pertussis toxin (PT)

34

Pneumonia can be subdivided into categories based on what 3 things?

- Presentation of illness (acute, chronic)

- Clinical setting (community, hospital)

- Type of infecting process (aspiration, viral, bacterial)

35

3 methods of detecting bronchiolitis infection

Rapid detection - staining or ELISA

Viral culture

36

How to concentrate tuberculosis sputum?

Centrifuge, keep pellet

37

Produces paintbrush-like heads

Penicillium

38

Fluid drained from the pleural space

Thoracentesis fluid

39

5 causative agents of acute/chronic bronchitis

- Respiratory viruses

- Mycoplasma pneumoniae

- Chlamydophila pneumoniae

- H. influenzae

- B. pertussis

40

3 anaerobes that may cause aspiration pneumonia

Prevotella
Porphyromonas
Bacteroides

41

4 ways respiratory pathogens can enter the lungs

- Invasion
- Inhalation
- Aspiration (oral/gastric)
- Hematogenous

42

Organism associated with SPA or M7 media (enriched w/ cholesterol)

Mycoplasma

43

3 unusual pathogens that may cause a BAL to be performed

- fungi
- AFB
- Pneumocystis jiroveci

44

Exceptions to not collecting bronchitis specimens are made for these 3 organisms

What specimen gets collected?

- Influenza
- RSV
- B. pertussis

NP washes/swabs

45

Prominent organism in cystic fibrosis infection (not later stages)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - mucoid strains

46

Isolated from sputums of CF patients and is associated w/ a decline in lung function

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

47

Specimen collected for bronchiolitis disagnosis

Nasopharyngeal (NP) washing or swab

48

3 common causes of bronchiolitis

RSV
Parainfluenzae - 'croup'
Influenza

49

Antimicrobial found in all 3 B. cepacia media

Polymixin B

50

Elderly patients are more likely to suffer from this type of community-acquired pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia

51

Acute viral or bacterial inflammation of the larger airways in healthy patients with no history of
recurrent disease

Acute bronchitis

52

In S. aureus, this toxin acts along with a pore forming cytotoxin

Leucocydin

53

In an immunocompetent patient, chronic pneumonia is most often due to?

Mycoplasma tuberculosis

54

Lung transplants are ruled out for patients colonized with ______________

Burkholderia cepacia

55

Fluid accumulation in the pleural space where the fluid has leaked from the blood and/or lymphatic systems.

Transudate fluid

56

Group A strep adherence factpr

M protein

57

GNB adherence factor

Fimbriae

58

B. pertussis toxin that kills ciliated cells and causes their extrusion from mucosa

Tracheal cytotoxin

59

This toxin is made up of 6 subunits

Pertussis toxin
(PT)

60

Myalgia is a symptom of this infection (muscle aches and pains)

Bronchitis

61

Responsible for S. pneumoniae virulence

Capsule production

62

Specimen where a staph streak on the primary BAP is appropriate

Sputum

63

3 methods of Legionella confirmation

- Latex
- DFA stain
- ELISA