8.2 Cephalosporins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8.2 Cephalosporins Deck (16):
1

What are the 2 major advantages of cephalosporins vs pcn?

More resistant to beta-lactamases
Two side chains – create more variations

2

In general, what do cephalosporins cover?

Aerobic G- (except 5th gen)

3

What do 1st gen cephalosporins cover?

Staph (not MRSA), strep (G+)
PEK- Proteus, e. coli, klebsiella (G-)

4

What are some examples of 1st gen cephalosporins?

KEFLEX
Cefadroxil (Duricef®), Cephalexin – PO
Cefazolin – IV

5

What is the difference between 2nd gen cephalosporins?

True cephalosporins, and
Cephamycins- comes from a bacterium, not the fungus like the true cephalosporins

6

What are 2nd gen true cephalosporins active against?

Active against G+ as 1st generation (Staph, strep)
Covers G- H. flu, Neisseria, and PEK – (i.e HaN PEK)

7

What meds are available in the true cephalosporin 2nd gen class?

PO -- Cefaclor (Ceclor®), Cefprozil (Cefzil®), Cefuroxime axetil (Ceftin®),
IV -- Cefuroxime Sodium (Zinacef®)

8

What is the coverage of cephamycins?

More activity against anaerobes, at expense of G+ staph/strep

9

What is a common cephomycin? Use?

Cefotetan- common in OB

10

What do the 3rd gen cephalosporins cover?

HEN PEK – H. flu, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella
With moderate activity against G+ and spirochete (e.g. lyme)
NOT PSEUDOMONAS

11

What are some examples of 3rd gen cephalosporin?

IV- Cephtriaxone (rocephin), Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime
PO- Cefdinir, Cefditoren

12

What do 4th gen cephalosporins cover?

Staph, strep, HEN PEK + Pseudomonas

13

What is the only 4th gen cephalosporin?

Cefepime (Maxipime®) – IV

14

What is the coverage of 5th gen cephalosporins?

Able to bind to MRSA PBPs – covers staph, strep, and even MRSA
HEN PEK but no Pseudomonas activity

15

What is the only drug in the 5th gen cephalosporin class?

Ceftaroline fosamil (Teflaro®)
Prodrug

16

What are the SA of cephalosporins?

Relatively safe
5-10% cross sensitivity with PCN allergy (??? May be much less – i.e. <0.2%)
Rash, urticaria, or anaphylaxis
Reversible neutropenia, thrombocytosis, elevated LFTs
Cefotetan – hypothrombinemia, disulfiram-like reaction
Ceftriaxone – eliminated by biliary excretion --> biliary sludge