Flashcards in 9.1 Sulfa II Deck (27):
What is the mechanism of Metronidazole/flagyl?
Small molecule diffuses into cells, once activated releases free radicals that break DNA.
What class of bacteria does Metronidazole target? Examples?
Anaerobes- they have the e- txp chain needed to activate free radicals
C. Diff, B. fragilis
Do bacteria become resistant to Metronidazole?
What are the SA of metronidazole?
Nausea, Epigastric dyscomfort
Furring of tongue
Headache, dizziness, neuropathy – high dose and long duration
Disulfiram – like reaction
What is the MOA of bacitracin?
Inhibits cell wall synthesis
What does bacitracin cover?
G+ cocci and bacilli
Neisseria; H. flu
Treponema pallidum; Actinomyces; Fusobacterium
What doesn't bacitracin cover?
Enterobacteriaceae; Pseudomonas; Candida; Norcardia
How is bacitracin prepared?
IV- D/C'd due to nephrotoxicity
What is mupirocin?
Topical 2% med
What does mupirocin cover?
G+ (i.e. Strep pyogenes & MSSA & MRSA)
G- (i.e. H. Flu; Neisseria; B. Catarrhalis; Pasteurella Multocida)
What is the mechanism of mupirosin?
Reversibly inhibits Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase Prevents AA attaching to tRNA (i.e. prevent “loading” or “charging”) stop protein synthesis
What is the indication for mupirosin?
What is the most important characteristics of mycobacterium?
4 layers of cell wall, outer made from mycelia acid
Many efflux pumps
Can hide INSIDE patient's own cells
What are the most common anti-mycobacterial agents?
Isoniazid- most common
Rifamycins- (RNA polymerase)
Some aminoglycosides (streptomycin)
Some macrolides (azithromycin)
What is the mechanism of Isoniazid (INH)?
Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis- which makes up the cell wall
Prodrug- diffuses into mycoplasma where activated by KatG that then interferes with mycolic acid
What is the indication for INH/Isoniazid?
How do cells become resistant to INH?
Mutation of activating enzyme
What are the SE of INH?
Rash, fever, dry mouth
Hepatoxicity (esp. together with 2E1 inducers)
2E1 converts INH to hepatotoxic metabolite
Neuropathy – to prevent give with vit B6
What are special considerations with INH?
Many DDI- induces 2E1 (same as ETOH, many other meds)
What is the indication for Pyrazinamide?
Given with INH for TB
What is the mechanism of Pyrazinamide
Not fully known
Targets enzymes for synthesis of mycolic acid
Reduction of intracellular pH
Disrupt membrane transport
** Only works at acidic pH
What are the SA of pyrazinamide?
Arthralgias, anorexia, N/V
Fever, malaise, dysuria
Increase uric acid higher risk for gout
What is Ethambutol?
Target the synthesis of mycobacterial cell wall
Disrupt the assembly of cell wall
What are the SA of ethambutol?
Optic Neuritis --> decrease visual acuity and red-green color blindness
Joint pain, GI upset, HA, dizziness
What is the tx for multi-drug resistant TB?
What is the mechanism of Bedaquiline?
Inhibits bacterial ATP synthase