8C: Social Interactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8C: Social Interactions Deck (48):
1

Status

Socially defined position within society that is used to classify a person

2

Master Status

The status that overshadows all others (Roger Federer is a "tennis player")

3

Explain Difference between Ascribed and Achieved Status

Ascribed: Given at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life, not chosen or earned (race, gender, ethnicity)
Achieved: Gained or earned through one's efforts (Oscar-winning actor)

4

Role

Collection of behaviors, values, norms, attitudes, and beliefs that are expected of a person holding a particular status

5

Role Partner

Person with whom someone interacts in their role (teacher with students, parents, other faculty)

6

Role Performance

How well a person carries out their particular role

7

Role Conflict

Difficulty of performing two DIFFERENT roles at once (dad and baseball coach)

8

Role Strain

Difficulty of fulfilling multiple expectations within the same role

9

Role Exit

Taking up another status by dropping a role

10

Groups

Two or more people who identify and interact with each other

Share values, interest, family, social placement

11

Reference Group

Social group in which individuals can evaluate themselves

12

Primary Group

Direct interaction between members with close and intimate relationships

Families, close groups of friends, teams

13

Secondary Group

Superficial Interaction between members, don't last very long

14

Group Conformity

The power a group holds over its members

Individuals willing to comply in order to fit in

15

Network

Observable, chartable pattern of relationships between individuals and groups

16

Social Network

Complicated, intricate web of social connections between people, with both direct and indirect relationships

17

Organizations

Entities that come together with specific culture and structure, set on achieving specific goals

Typically large, more impersonal than groups, and can still function when individuals leave

18

Coercive vs Normative vs Utilitarian Organizations

Coercive: Members have no choice in joining (prison)
Normative: Members join for some common, moral goal (volunteers)
Utilitarian: Members are paid for efforts (businesses)

19

Bureaucracy

Rational system of administration, control, and discipline

20

Weber's 6 Characteristics of Bureaucracy

1. Formal hierarchal structure
2. Managed via set of defined, specific rules and regulations
3. Organized by functional specificity, different workers to different tasks
4. Unified mission that is either "up-focused" to serve shareholders, or "in-focused" to serve itself through max profit
5. Purposefully impersonal
6. Employment is based on tech qualifications, either degree or training

21

Iron Law of Oligarchy

Posits that the majority of bureaucratic and democratic organizations eventually and naturally shift to being ruled by oligarchs, a group of elites

22

Basic Model of Emotional Expression

Various forms of expression are consistent with theory of evolution (Darwin), and that they are the same across cultures

23

Social Construction Model

No biological basis for expression, holds that emotions are based on experiences and social contexts

24

Display Rules

Cultural expectations for how emotions should be expressed

25

Cultural Syndrome

Set of attitudes, behaviors, beliefs that are organized around some central theme and is shared near-unanimously among members of the same culture

26

Role of Gender in Expressing Emotino

Women more likely to actually display empathy, because they are better at reading emotional cues

Also, women are more able to show emotion, more socially acceptable

27

Self-Presentation

Act of displaying ourselves to to others and to society through means of socially acceptable behaviors

28

Impression Management

How we attempt to shape and influence the way other people perceive us

29

Three selves of impression management

Authentic Self
Ideal Self
Tactical Self

30

Strategies for Impression Management

Assertive: Bragging, talking oneself up, wearing flashy clothes
Defensive: Meant to protect one's impression in the event of failure (claiming to have not studied prior to test)

31

Dramaturgical Perspective

Front Stage: Person performs for the audience, according to understood social cues
Back Stage: When actor is not performing, can be themself

32

Social Behaviors

Interactions between same species

Includes attraction, aggression, attachment, and social support

33

Attraction

Having positive feelings about another

Influenced by proximity, mere exposure effect, appearance, self-disclosure effect, and reciprocal linking

34

Aggression

Hostile, assertive, and attacking behavior- can be physical or verbal or emotional

Evolutionary Standpoint and Amygdala

35

Cognitive Association Model

We are more likely to respond aggressively when we are experiencing negative emotions or physiological feelings

36

Frustration Aggression Model

We are more likely to behave aggressively when we are blocked from reaching a goal

37

Attachment

Emotional connection established between caregiver and child from birth

38

Secure Attachment

Constant caregiver, able to explore and learn about the world

39

Ambivalent Attachment

Caregiver is inconsistent, child becomes distressed when separated from caregiver but calms down when they return

40

Avoidant Attachment

Caregiver provides little to no response, no safe base

Child shows no preference for caregiver over total stranger, no elation upon return or sadness when gone

41

Disorganized Attachment

Child's caregiver behaves erratically and is typified by a disorganized pattern of behavior in response to caregiver's absence and presence

42

Social Support

PERCEPTION that one is cared for and supported by social network

Low social support = higher mortality rates from many diseases

43

Foraging Behavior

Animal's search for and use of food resources

44

Mating Behavior

Polygyny: Male with lots of females
Polyandry: Female with lots of males

45

Inclusive Fitness

Number of offspring an animal has, how well it supports those offspring, and how well its offspring support other organisms in a group

46

Game Theory

Payoff is typically sexual fitness

Rewards associated with decisions or actions

47

Altruistic Behaviors

Behaviors helping other members of the group survive and thrive, often at the cost to the individual performing the action

48

Discrimination

Active form of prejudice