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best initial test for hemoptysis

chest x-ray


chronic myeloid leukemia ddx test and tx

- BCR-ABL test-- philadelphia chromosome
- tx: tyrosine kinase inhibitor


Diagnosic test for infectious mononucleosis

- monospot test for EBV IM


Treatment difference between preseptal cellulitis (chemosis, eyelid swelling, erythema, fever, leukocytosis) vs postseptal cellulitis (sx of pre plus ophthalmoplegia, visual acuity changes, proptosis, diplopia)

- preseptal: oral abx
- post septal: IV abx (vac plus ampicillin-sulbactam)


Management of diabetic ketoacidosis

- IV insulin, aggressive fluid support, potassium supplementation
- if anion gap is still there and blood glucose <200, half insulin and add dextrose to prevent hypoglycemia


What should you watch out for in B 12 supplementation in megaloblastic anemia?

Hypokalemia, as you use potassium when making RBCs


Anterior uveitis (iritis) clinical features and diagnostic test

- pain, redness, variable visual loss, constricted and irregular pupil
- leukocytes in anterior segment


Management of HSV in pregnant pts, history vs no history of hsv

- if infected before, then needs antiviral therapy at 36 weeks, and needs c-section when delivering if infection is active
- if never exposed, no further testing needed
- if exposed to HSV infected partner, then needs HSV serology testing.


Which ratio measures association between studies?

Odds ratio--> odds of 1 event/odds of 2nd event
odds: probabilty of an event/1- prob of event


Clinical features of patellar tendon rupture

excruciating pain, swelling of the anterior part of the knee, inability to maintain passive extension of the knee against gravity


enuresis (bedwetting) at age 5 and above management and treatment

- need UA
- urologic imaging if significant daytime sx and history of recurrent UTI
- Tx: behavior modification, then enuresis alarms, then meds (desmopressin)


scaphoid fx diagnostic test and complication

- X-ray (can take upto two weeks for imaging to be positive), and if negative, MRI/CT, repeat x-ray, or bone scan
- nonunion and avascular necrosis


which herbal supplement can cause hypertension?



what side effect does ginko (dementia, neurological issue) have?

bleeding due to interaction with warfarin/aspirin


Actinic keratosis (skin disease from increased sun exposure) has increased risk of which cancer?

squamous cell carcinoma


Disease related to meconium ileus in peds



low pitched, rumbling diastolic murmur best heard in apex in left lateral decubitus position

mitral stenosis


systolic crescendo decrescendo ejection murmur in left sternal border

pulmonary stenosis


apical holosystolic murmur

mitral regurgitation


mid-to-late systolic click followed by late systolic murmur

mitral valve prolapse


Bacterial conjunctivitis (redness, purulent drainage) complication? treatment for uncomplicated bacterial conjunctivitis? for contact wearers?

- keratitis
- erythromycin ointment, sulfa drops
- fluoroquinolone (cipro, ofloxacin)


proximal muscle weakness with increased CPK levels indicate primary muscle weakness. What other lab findings are present? Treatment for inflammatory myositis?

elevated ferritin levels in inflammatory myositis
tx: steroids


treatment of choice in mammalian bites

amoxicillin/clavulanate as it provides coverage for both aerobic and anaerobic flora


Initial test of choice to confirm pneumothorax

upright chest x-ray (PA view)


Clinical features of acute bronchitis, diagnosis and tx

- preceding respiratory illness, cough lasts 5 days to 3 weeks
- can be productive sputum, but absent systemic signs
- chest wall tenderness, wheezing, rhonchi
- diagnosis: clinical, chest x-ray only if PNA is suspected
- tx: symptomatic


patients with untreated acromegaly has increased mortality due to what?

- cardiovascular disease
- increased risk of colon cancer; need screening every 3-5 years


diabetic gastroparesis (early satiety, postprandial fullness, autonomic sx, labile glucose control) is best diagnosed with what test? Management?

- nuclear gastric emptying study
- dietary modification, and if refractory, promotility agents (erythromycin, metoclopramide)


antibiotics for meningococcus meningitis ppx

- rifampin
- ceftriaxone IM, can be used in pregnancy
- cipro, not for children


When should you switch AED regimen in pregnant ladies?

6 months prior to pregnancy, should not switch once pregnancy is confirmed


GBS ppx indication

- GBS bacteriuria or GBS UTI during current pregnancy
- GBS positive rectovaginal culture
- prior delivery complicated with GBS
** positive GBS in prior pregnancy is not indication for GBS tx in current pregnancy
- unknown GBS status PLUS <37 weeks of gestation OR rupture of membranes >18 hours