9. BAMS Microbiology and Cleanliness Champions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9. BAMS Microbiology and Cleanliness Champions Deck (12):

Definition of AIDS

4 examples of indicator conditions

2 examples of group 2 lesions

HIV replicative cycle

Presence of one/more indicator conditions in association with HIV

Lymphoma, TB, Kaposi sarcoma, pneumonia

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, hair leukoplakia, candidosis

HIV releases contents into cell --> reverse transcriptase copes vRNA into DNA --> vDNA inserted into cellular DNA --> many viral/RNA proteins are made --> new viral proteins assemble and bud from cell, potentially killing it


Structure, availability of vaccine, primary spread, availability of PEP and sharps injury transmission of:




Partially double stranded DNA virus, vaccine available, unprotected sex, PEP for unvaccinated/non-responders, 1/3

Single stranded RNA virus, no vaccine, IVDUs, no PEP, 1/30

Single stranded RNA virus, no vaccine, unprotected sex, PEP, 1/300


Definition of bacteraemia

Definition of septicaemia

Definition of sepsis

What are SIRS criteria

Types and definitions of types of sepsis

List Sepsis 6

Transient presence of bacteria in bloodstream

Persistent presence of bacteria in bloodstream with attendant signs and symptoms

Infection + SIRS. Host immune response to infection. Uncontrolled, unregulated, self-sustaining intravascular inflammation

Temperature <36/>38, WBC <4,000/>12,000cells/mm3, HR > 90bpm, resp rate > 20bpm

Sepsis, severe sepsis (organ dysfunction), septic shock (refractory shock to fluid resuscitation)

Give O2 (SATS >90%)
Take blood cultures
IV antibiotics
Give fluid challenge
Measure lactate
Measure urine output


Definition of sharps injury/exposure

Definition of significant exposure

3 methods of prevention sharps injury

Treatment of sharps injury

Definition of exposure prone procedure

Skin broken/pierced by sharp object contaminated with blood/bodily fluid

Exposure when blood/bodily fluid is contaminated with BBV infected blood

PPE, hand hygiene, SICPS (safe sharps disposal)

Stop treatment, remove PPE, be sharps AWARE (allow to bleed (squeeze), wash under warm water, assess extend of injury (cover with waterproof dressing), risk of source blood, establish contact - with tutor (complete incident report form) and occupational health

Invasive procedure where injury to HCW may result in exposure of Px blood/tissue to blood of HCW


Definition of antibiotics

Ideal properties


How does resistance develop

Chemical substance produced by one organism that is destructive to another

Selective toxicity against pathogen, minimal host toxicity, -cidial activity, oral and parenteral preparations

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription

From misuse - using outdated antibiotics/someone else's, failing to complete regime, using antibiotics in animal feed, inappropriate use


List the structure, virulence factor and example of infection for:

S. aureus

S. pyogenes

S. anginosus

Anaerobes (clostridium)

Herpes simplex

C. albicans

Gram +ve coccus. PVL. Endocarditis, food poisoning

Gram +ve bacillus. Superantigens, toxic shock syndrome. Angular cheilitis

Gram +ve bacillus. Intermedilysin. Acute dento-alveolar abscess

Gram +ve spore forming obligate anaerobe. Alpha toxins. C. diff colitis

Enveoped DNA virus. Cell lysis. Gingival stomatitis

Yeast cell fungus. Phospholipase. Erythematous candidosis


Examples and causes of infections found in:



Hair follicle

Subcutaneous fat



Surgical wound infections

Impetigo, angular cheilitis. S. aureus and S. pyogenes

Erysipelas. S. aureus and S. pyogenes

Folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles. S. aureus

Cellulitis. S. pyogenes and S. aureus

Necrotising fasciitis. Mixture of micro-organisms

Myonecrosis, gangrene. Mixture of micro-organisms

Sore, red, swelling, discharge. S. aureus


List components of chain of infection

List components of sinners circle

Definition of virulence

Definition of dose

Definition of infectious dose

Definition of colonisation

Surface antigens found in influenza

Infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host

Time, temperature, mechanical action, chemical action

Ability to cause disease

Number of microbes entering body

Dose required to cause infection

Presence, growth and multiplication of micro-organism in/on host, without infection

Haemagglutinin H1-15, neuraminidase N1-9


Describe, give an example of and describe cleaning process of each category of equipment risk

List 3 types of decontamination and define one of them

How is the chain of infection broken on surfaces from:


Portal of exit

Mode of transmission

Portal of entry

Susceptible host

High risk - items that break mucous membranes/are in contact with (forceps). Sterilisation
Medium risk - items in contact with intact mucous membranes (impression trays). Disinfection
Low risk - items in contact with intact skin (dental chair). Cleaning
Minimal risk - items not in contact with intact skin/far away (computer keyboard). Cleaning

Cleaning, sterilisation, disinfection - removal/destruction of microbes, not usually including bacterial spores

Cleaning, surface design, surface materials, detergent use

Aerosol control

Hands, fomites - hand hygiene




List 4 portals of exit

List 3 portals of entry

Definition of detergent

Definition of high level disinfectant

Definition of low level disinfectant

Sneeze, cough, saliva, tears, skin contact

Aerosols, inhalation, direct/indirect contact

Group of synthetic organic water-soluble agents that have wetting agent, emulsifying and soil holding proper-ties

Kill all microbes but not large numbers of bacterial spores

Kill most vegetative bacteria, some fungi and some protozoa in a practical time period


3 important safety features of sharps box

List WHO 5 moments for hand hygiene

List 5 SICPs

Line 3/4 when locked and sealed before being incinerated. Should be out of reach of children. Should be close enough to operator for easy reach when disposing of sharps

Before touching a patient, before aseptic/clean procedure, after bodily fluid exposure risk, after touching a patient, after touching patient surroundings

Patient positioning, PPE, hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, safe management of linen, safe disposal of waste (including sharps), safe management of bodily fluid spillages


Describe how you would manage a blood spillage

Name 2 chlorine releasing agents

Name concentration (ppm) of chlorine releasing agents

PPE, contain with paper towels, assemble spillage kit, cover/coat with chlorine releasing agent, leave for 3-5 mins (NHSGGC guidance), clean with paper towels (clinical waste), wash with detergent and water, dispose of PPE, hand hygiene

Sodium hypochlorite, sodium dichloroisocyanurate