9 - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Flashcards Preview

Chapters 1-9 - Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition > 9 - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9 - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Deck (13)
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To what does the metric DALY (disability-adjusted life year) refer?

The sum of years of life lost due to disability or premature mortality


Why is the metric DALY useful?

It provides a high
degree of uniformity for health information gathered about
acute and chronic diseases in different parts of the world
and at multiple locations in a single country


What disease categories will likely increase as a direct result of climate change?

Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory illnesses (heat waves and air pollution);
gastroenteritis, cholera, and other food- or waterborne illness (flooding); vector-borne infectious diseases; malnutrition ( disruptions in crop production)


Where will the consequences of climate change be most severe?

The poorer countries


What is toxicology?

The study of poisons (also physical agents such as heat or radiation can be included)


What is the nature of a poison dependent on?

The dosage of a particular substance (just about anything can be poisonous at high enough concentrations)


Are most solvents and drugs lipophilic or lipophobic?



How are most lipophilic drugs and solvents metabolized?

They are metabolized to form inactive water-soluble products (or some are activated to form toxic metabolites)


What is the most important catalyst of Phase I reactions (hydrolysis, reduction, oxidation)?

The cytochrome P-450 enzyme system (CYP)


What are the three Phase II reactions of xenobiotic metabolism?

Glucuronidation, sulfation, and methylation


How quickly can the average running car produce enough CO within a small, closed garage to induce coma or death?

5 minutes


What sign is characteristic of acute carbon monoxide poisoning?

Generalized cherry-red color of the skin and mucous membranes (in light-skinned individuals)


What are some symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning?

Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, neurological changes, dizziness, seizures