8 - Infectious Diseases Flashcards Preview

Chapters 1-9 - Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition > 8 - Infectious Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8 - Infectious Diseases Deck (102)
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1

How are most skin infections initiated?

Mechanical injury of the epidermis

2

How are most gastrointestinal pathogens transmitted?

Fecal-oral route via contaminated food or drink

3

What is the body's principal method of defending against fecal-orally transmitted infections?

Acidic gastric secretions, pancreatic enzymes, and bile detergents

4

What do both the skin and gut epithelial cells produce to protect against infectious disease?

IgA antibodies

5

How are most infections transmitted from person to person (3)?

Respiratory, fecal-oral, or sexual routes

6

How can infectious diseases escape from antibody-mediated host defenses?

Antigenic variation

7

What is the ultimate means by which infectious diseases can avoid the immune system?

Latent infection in which few if any viral genes are expressed

8

What is it called when viral agents have a predilection for certain types of cell to infect?

Tropism

9

What bacterial surface proteins bind bacteria to host cells or ECM?

Adhesins

10

How does tuberculosis utilize the immune system in its replication?

M. tuberculosis activates the alternative complement pathway, resulting in opsonization with C3b. Once coated with C3b, M. tuberculosis binds to the CR3 complement receptor on macrophages, enters the macrophages, and replicates within phagosomes

11

Describe bacterial endotoxin.

A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that both stimulates host immune responses and injures the host

12

Describe bacterial exotoxins.

Secreted bacterial proteins that cause cellular injury and disease.

13

What are some examples of bacterial exotoxins?

Enzymes, toxins altering intracellular signaling, neurotoxins, superantigens

14

What are some types of inflammatory response to infectious disease?

Suppurative, granulomatous, cytopathic-cytoproliferative reactions, tissue necrosis, scarring

15

How are most infectious diseases diagnosed?

Cultures, biochemical or serologic identification, and molecular diagnosis

16

What stain can identify most bacteria?

Gram stain

17

What stain can identify mycobacteria and nocardiae?

Acid-fast stain

18

What stain can identify fungi, legionella, and pneumocystis?

Silver stain

19

What stain can identify fungi and amebae?

Periodic acid-Shiff stain

20

What three techniques can identify all classes of infectious agents?

Antibody stains, culture, DNA probes

21

What are four examples of respiratory viruses with acute (transient) presentation?

Adenovirus, rhinovirus, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus

22

What are four examples of digestive viruses with acute (transient) presentation?

Mumps, Rotavirus, Norovirus, and Hepatitis A-E

23

What are four examples of systemic viruses with acute (transient) presentation and skin eruptions?

Measles, Rubella, Varicella-zoster, HHSV 1-2

24

What are three examples of systemic viruses with acute (transient) presentation and hematopoietic disorders?

CMV, EBV, and HIV-1-2

25

What are two examples of arboviral- and hemorrhagic fever-related viruses with acute (transient) presentation?

Dengue and Yellow fever

26

What is an example of a viruse with acute (transient) presentation of the skin /genital warts?

HPV

27

What are two examples of CNS viruses with acute (transient) presentation?

Poliovirus and JC virus

28

What is a rare, late complication of measles?

Encephalitis

29

Describe mumps (type and presentation).

Acute systemic viral infection; pain and swelling of the salivary glands

30

Is there more than one type of mumps?

Yes: mumps parotitis, orchitis, and encephalitis