Cardiovascular disease will primarily affect one or more of what three components of the cardiovascular system?
The heart, the blood vessels, or the blood
What are the four major categories of hemodynamic disorders?
Edema, effusions, congestion, and shock
What is the name of fluid accumulations in tissues?
What is the name of fluid accumulations in body cavities?
What two pressures balance fluid extrusion and intake in capillary beds?
Hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure
Are edema and effusions inflammatory or noninflammatory?
They may be both (exudates or transudates).
What type of disorders are the principal causes of increased hydrostatic pressure?
Disorders of impaired venous return (congestion)
Loss of what plasma substance is the principal cause of decreased colloid osmotic pressure?
Albumin (accounts for ~50% of all plasma protein)
An increase in what plasma substance will lead to increased water retention and circulatory dilution (and thus increased hydrostatic pressure and decreased colloid osmotic pressure)?
What are some causes of hypoproteinemia?
Nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition, liver cirrhosis
What are some causes of lymphatic obstruction?
Inflammation, neoplasm, surgical removal, irradiation
What categories of tissues are most commonly affected by edema?
Subcutaneous, lung, and brain tissues
What is dependent edema?
A form of gravity-influenced subcutaneous edema in the legs and pelvis (often due to right-sided heart failure)
What parts of the body are often the first affected by edema in cases of renal dysfunction?
Areas with loose connective tissue such as the eyelids (periorbital edema)
What are the main types of effusion?
Pericardial (hydropericardium), pleural (hydrothorax), and peritoneal (ascites or hydroperitoneum)
When is pulmonary edema most commonly seen?
In cases of left-sided heart failure (but also in renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome)
What fluid accumulation often accompanies pulmonary edema of the lung tissue?
Pleural effusions further compressing the lungs from the pleural cavity
What is the most common cause of ascites?
What is a potentially life threatening complication of cerebral edema?
Brain herniation (and death following medulla compression or loss of blood supply)
What is the difference between hyperemia and congestion?
Hyperemia is an active process of arteriolar dilation; congestion is a passive process resulting from decreased outflow of blood
Ironically, in what adverse tissue event can long-standing, chronic congestion result?
Ischemic tissue, hemorrhage, and scarring
Long-standing congestion can result in hemorrhagic foci with what telltale cell clusters?
Clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages (trying to catabolize the extravasated red blood cells and contained hemoglobin)
What is another name for the clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages trying to clean up hemorrhagic foci?
Define the term 'nutmeg liver.'
In chronic passive hepatic congestion, the centrilobular regions are grossly red-brown and slightly depressed (because of cell death) and are accentuated against the surrounding zones of uncongested tan liver.
What color will congested tissues turn?
a dusky reddish-blue color (cyanosis) due to red cell stasis and the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin
The process by which blood clots form at sites of vascular injury
What are the two categories of disorder of hemostasis (too much and too little)?
Hemorrhagic or thrombotic disorders
What are the four steps of hemostasis?
1. Arteriolar vasoconstriction
2. Platelet plug (primary hemostasis)
3. Fibrin deposition (secondary hemostasis)
4. Clot stabilization and resorption
What substance do endothelial cells release to initiate the vasoconstriction seen in hemostasis?
(Hint: don't say nitric oxide)
What is primary hemostasis?
Platelet plug formation