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Flashcards in 9.27.16 Forearm Deck (118):
1

The deep fascia of the forearm (antebrachial fascia) is a continuation of the ___ from the arm. Distally, the antebrachial fascia will thicken and form the ___.

Brachial fascia; flexor and extensor retinacula

2

What extends obliquely across the posterior radiocarpal joint from the anterior border of the distal radius to the triquetrum and pisiform bones?

Extensor retinaculum

3

What is also called the transverse carpal ligament?

Flexor retinaculum

4

What is attached medially to the pisiform and the hook of the hamate, and laterally to the trapezium and scaphoid bones of the wrist?

Flexor retinaculum

5

The flexor retinaculum forms what two things?

The carpal tunnel and the canal of Guyon

6

What are the superficial muscles of the anterior forearm?

1. Pronator teres
2. Flexor carpi radialis
3. Palmaris longus
4. Flexor digitorum superficialis
5. Flexor carpi ulnaris

7

What is the origin and insertion of pronator teres?

Origin: two heads - medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna.
Insertion: Midway along lateral surface of radius

8

What innervates pronator teres?

Median nerve

9

What is the function of pronator teres?

Pronates forearm and assists with elbow flexion

10

What supplies pronator teres?

Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

11

What is the origin and insertion of flexor carpi radialis?

Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: base of 2nd metacarpal

12

What innervates flexor carpi radialis?

Median nerve

13

What is the function of flexor carpi radialis?

Flexes and abducts hand at wrist

14

What supplies flexor carpi radialis?

Radial artery

15

What is the origin and insertion of palmaris longus?

Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: distal half of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis

16

What innervates palmaris longus?

Median nerve

17

What is the function of palmaris longus?

Flexes hand at wrist and tenses palmar aponeurosis

18

What supplies palmaris longus?

Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

19

What is the origin and insertion of flexor digitorum superficialis?

Origin of humero-ulnar head: medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
Origin of radial head: superior half of anterior radius
Insertion: Bodies of middle phalanges of medial four digits

20

What innervates flexor digitorum superficialis?

Median nerve

21

What is the function of flexor digitorum superficialis?

Flexes middle and proximal phalanges of medial four digits, flexes hand at wrist

22

What supplies flexor digitorum superficials?

Ulnar and radial arteries

23

What is the origin and insertion of flexor carpi ulnaris?

Origin of humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus
Origin of ulnar head: olecranon and posterior border of ulna
Insertion: pisiform bone, hook of hamate, base of 5th metacarpal

24

What innervates flexor carpi ulnaris?

Ulnar nerve

25

What is the function of flexor carpi ulnaris?

Flexes and adducts hand at wrist

26

What supplies flexor carpi ulnaris?

Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

27

The tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis split and insert onto ___; this allows tendons of FDP to pass through to the ___.

Middle phalynx; Distal phalynx

28

What are the deep muscles of the anterior forearm?

1. Flexor digitorum profundus
2. Flexor pollicis longus
3. Pronator quadratus

29

What is the origin and insertion of flexor digitorum profundus?

Origin: Medial and anterior surface of proximal 3/4 of ulna and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Palmar base of distal phalanges of medial four digits

30

What innervates flexor digitorum profundus?

Medial part: ulnar nerve
Lateral part: median nerve

31

What is the function of flexor digitorum profundus?

Flexes distal phalanges of medial four digits, assists with flexion of hand at wrist

32

What supplies flexor digitorum profundus?

Anterior interosseous artery, muscular branches of ulnar artery

33

What is the origin and insertion of flexor pollicis longus?

Origin: anterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: palmar base of distal phalanx of thumb

34

What innervates flexor pollicis longus?

Median nerve (anterior interosseous)

35

What is the function of flexor pollicis longus?

Flexes phalanges of thumb

36

What supplies flexor pollicis longus?

Anterior interosseous artery

37

What is the origin and insertion of pronator quadratus?

Origin: distal fourth of anterior ulna
Insertion: Distal fourth of anterior radius

38

What innervates pronator quadratus?

Median nerve (anterior interosseous)

39

What is the function of pronator quadratus?

Pronates forearm

40

What supplies pronator quadratus?

Anterior interosseous artery

41

The tendons of the flexor digitorum profoundus pass under/through the tendons of the FDS and isnert onto the ___.

Distal phalynx

42

What are the superficial muscles of the posterior forearm?

1. Brachioradialis
2. Anconeus
3. Extensor carpi radialis longus
4. Extensor capri radialis brevis
5. Extensor digitorum
6. Extensor digiti minimi
7. Extensor carpi ulnaris

43

The muscles of the posterior forearm are all innervated by a branch of the ___.

Radial nerve

44

What is the origin and insertion of brachioradialis?

Origin: proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Insertion: lateral side of distal end of radius

45

What innervates brachioradialis?

Radial nerve

46

What is the function of brachioradialis?

Weak flexion of forearm when forearm is midpronated

47

What supplies brachioradialis?

Radial recurrent artery

48

What is the origin and insertion of anconeus?

Origin: posterior surface of lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: lateral surface of olecranon and posterior proximal ulna

49

What innervates anconeus?

Radial nerve (C5-T1)

50

What is the function of anconeus?

Assists triceps in extending elbow, abducts ulna in pronation

51

What supplies anconeus?

Deep brachial artery

52

What is the origin and insertion of extensor carpi radialis longus?

Origin: distal third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Insertion: dorsal base of 2nd metacarpal and slip to 3rd metacarpal

53

What innervates extensor carpi radialis longus?

Radial nerve

54

What is the function of extensor carpi radialis longus?

Extends and abducts hand at wrist

55

What supplies extensor carpi radialis longus?

Radial artery, radial recurrent artery

56

What is the origin and insertion of extensor carpi radialis brevis?

Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: dorsal base of 3rd metacarpal and slip to 2nd metacarpal

57

What innervates extensor carpi radialis brevis?

Radial nerve (deep branch)

58

What is the function of extensor carpi radialis brevis?

Extends and abducts hand at wrist

59

What supplies the function of extensor carpi radialis brevis?

Radial artery, radial recurrent artery

60

What is the origin and insertion of extensor digitorum?

Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: extensor expansions of medial four digits

61

What innervates extensor digitorum?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

62

What is the function of extensor digitorum?

Extends medial four digits, assists in wrist extension

63

What supplies extensor digitorum?

Posterior interosseous artery

64

What is the origin and insertion of extensor digiti minimi?

Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: extensor expansion of 5th digit

65

What innervates extensor digiti minimi?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

66

What is the function of extensor digiti minimi?

Extends 5th digit

67

What supplies extensor digiti minimi?

Posterior interosseous artery

68

What is the origin and insertion of extensor carpi ulnaris?

Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
Insertion: dorsal base of 5th metacarpal

69

What innervates extensor carpi ulnaris?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

70

What is the function of extensor carpi ulnaris?

Extends and adducts hand at wrist

71

What supplies extensor carpi ulnaris?

Posterior interosseous artery

72

What are the deep muscles of the posterior forearm?

1. Abductor pollicis longus
2. Extensor pollicis longus
3. Extensor pollicis brevis
4. Supinator
5. Extensor indicis

73

What is the origin and insertion of abductor pollicis longus?

Origin: Posterior surface of ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane
Insertion: base of 1st metacarpal

74

What innervates abductor pollicis longus?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

75

What is the function of abductor pollicis longus?

Abducts and extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint

76

What supplies abductor pollicis longus?

Posterior interosseous artery

77

What is the origin and insertion of extensor pollicis longus?

Origin: posterior surface of middle third of ulna, interosseous membrane
Insertion: dorsal base of distal phalanx of thumb

78

What innervates extensor pollicis longus?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

79

What is the function of extensor pollicis longus?

Extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal and metacrapophalangeal joints

80

What supplies extensor pollicis longus?

Posterior interosseous artery

81

What is the origin and insertion of extensor pollicis brevis?

Origin: posterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: dorsal base of proximal phalanx of thumb

82

What innervates extensor pollicis brevis?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

83

What is the function of extensor pollicis brevis?

Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal joint

84

What supplies extensor pollicis brevis?

Posterior interosseous artery

85

What is the origin and insertion of supinator?

Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator crest of ulna
Insertion: lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius

86

What innervates supinator?

Radial nerve (deep branch)

87

What is the function of supinator?

Supinates forearm

88

What supplies supinator?

Radial recurrent artery, posterior interosseous arteries

89

What is the origin and insertion of extensor indicis?

Origin: posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
Insertion: extensor expansion of 2nd digit

90

What innervates extensor indicis?

Radial nerve (posterior interosseous)

91

What is the function of extensor indicis?

Extends 2nd digit and helps extend hand at wrist

92

What supplies extensor indicids?

Posterior interosseous artery

93

What are the two pronators?

Pronator teres and pronator quadratus

94

What forms the anatomical snuff box?

Abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons laterally, and extensor pollicis longus tendon medially

95

___ runs through the floor of the anatomical snuff box. Branches of ___ run across the roof.

Radial artery; superficial radial nerve

96

What muscles are found within the anatomical snuff box?

Scaphoid and trapezium

97

What is the continuation of the axillary artery at the inferior border of the teres major muscle? It terminates in the distal end of the cubital fossa where it divides into what two arteries?

Brachial; radial and ulnar

98

The ___ is one of two terminal branches of the brachial artery. It extends from the neck of the radius to the medial side of the styloid process. It lies deep to the brachioradialis muscle, but becomes superficial in the distal 1/3 of the arm.

Radial artery

99

What is the other terminal branch of the brachial artery that extends from the neck of the radius to the flexor retinaculum on the medial edge of the wrist. It runs deep to superficial flexors in the forearm. It runs with the ulnar nerve in the distal half of the forearm, and enters the hand via the canal of Guyon with the ulnar nerve. It can be palpated just lateral to the tendon of FCU. This gives off the common interosseous artery in the cubital fossa

Ulnar artery

100

What is a short trunk off of the ulnar artery extending laterally?

Common interosseous artery

101

Describe the path of the anterior interosseus.

Travels down the forearm superficial to the interosseous membrane, pierces the interosseous membrane distally to anastamose with posterior interosseous artery, continues under pronator quadratus muscle to the palmar carpal network.

102

Describe the path of posterior interosseous.

Passes immediately deep to the interosseous membrane to supply the posterior forearm between the superficial and deep groups of muscles

103

The median nerve enters the forearm between the heads of ___.

Pronator teres muscle

104

What does the median nerve innervate in the forearm?

Pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor digitorum superficialis

105

The median nerve gives of the ___ branch within the pronator teres muscle which supplies the deep flexors - name these.

Anterior interosseous; flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus, radial 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus

106

The median nerve lies deep to the ___ as it continues distally and becomes superficial in the ___.

Flexor digitorum superficialis; distal forearm

107

The median nerve can be found between the tendons of what two muscles?

Flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis

108

The median nerve passes deep and medial to the ___ tendon, where it enters the ___ deep to the flexor retinaculum

Palmaris longus; flexor retinaculum

109

The median nerve then supplies what three muscles in the hand?

Thenar muscles, 1st lumbrical, 2nd lumbrical

110

Finally, the median nerve gives off ___ branch to skin of the palm.

Palmar

111

The ulnar nerve enters the forearm behind the ___ and pierces the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, continues deep to ___ and then travels with the ___ artery to the wrist.

Medial epicondyle; flexor digitorum superficialis; ulnar

112

Then, the ulnar nerve enters the hand deep to the ___ ligament but superficial to the flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament) in the ___ with the ulnar artery.

Palmar carpal; Canal of Guyon

113

The radial nerve divides into superficial and deep branches as it lies between what two muscles?

Brachialis and brachioradialis

114

Describe the path of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

Runs deep to the brachioradialis muscle just lateral to the radial artery; in the distal 1/3 of the forearm, it crosses to the dorsum. It is seen crossing the top of the anatomical snuffbox, and is cutaneous to the dorsum of the hand and radial 2.5 digits

115

Describe the path of the deep branch of the radial nerve.

Passes through supinator to innervate posterior forearm extensor muscles

116

What innervates all of the muscles of the posterior forearm?

Radial nerve

117

What innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and the medial 1/2 of the flexor digitorum profundus muscle?

Ulnar nerve

118

What innervates a majority of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm?

Median nerve