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Flashcards in Lower Extremities Deck (185):
1

What is the origin of obturator internus?

1. Obturator membrane

2

What is the insertion of obturator internus?

1. Greater trochanter of the femur

3

What is the function of obturator internus?

1. Lateral rotation of extended thigh at hip
2. Abduction of flexed thigh at hip

4

What is the origin of superior gemellus?

1. Ischial spine

5

What is the insertion of superior gemellus?

1. Greater trochanter of femur

6

What is the function of superior gemellus?

1. Lateral rotation of extended hip at thigh

7

What is the origin of inferior gemellus?

1. Ischial tuberosity

8

What is the insertion of inferior gemellus?

1. Greater trochanter of femur

9

What is the function of inferior gemellus?

1. Lateral rotation of extended hip at thigh

10

What is the origin of piriformis?

1. Sacral segments 2-4
2. Sacrotuberous ligament

11

What is the insertion of piriformis?

1. Greater trochanter of femur

12

What is the function of piriformis?

1. Lateral rotation of extend thigh at hip
2. Abduction of flexed thigh at hip

13

What is the origin of gluteus minimus?

1. Lateral surface of ilium

14

What is the insertion of gluteus minimus?

1. Greater trochanter of femur

15

What is the function of gluteus minimus?

1. Abduction of thigh at hip
2. MEDIAL ROTATION of thigh at hip
3. Steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

16

What is the origin of gluteus medius?

1. Lateral surface of ilium

17

What is the insertion of gluteus medius?

1. Greater trochanter of femur

18

What is the function of gluteus minimus?

1. Abduction of thigh at hip
2. MEDIAL ROTATION of thigh at hip
3. Steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

19

What is the origin of gluteus maximus?

1. Ilium
2. Sacrum and coccyx
3. Sacrotuberous ligament

20

What is the insertion of gluteus minimus?

1. Lateral condyle of tibia
2. Gluteal tuberosity of femur

21

What is the function of gluteus maximus?

1. Extension of flexed thigh
2. Lateral rotation of thigh
3. Abduction of thigh

22

What is the origin of quadratus femoris?

1. Ischial tuberosity

23

What is the insertion of quadratus femoris?

1. Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur

24

What is the function of quadratus femoris?

1. Lateral rotation of hip at thigh

25

What is the origin of tensor fascia lata?

1. Iliac spine
2. Iliac crest

26

What is the insertion of tensor fascia lata?

1. Lateral condyle of tibia

27

What is the function of tensor fascia lata?

1. Abduction of thigh at hip
2. MEDIAL ROTATION of thigh at hip
3. Flexion of thigh at hip
4. Extension of knee (assists)

28

All of the muscles of the gluteal region are lateral rotators of the extended thigh at the hip EXCEPT for which three muscles?

1. Gluteus minimus
2. Gluteus medius
3. Tensor fascia lata

29

All of the muscles of the gluteal region are abductors of the flexed thigh at the hip EXCEPT for which three muscles?

1. Superior gemellus
2. Inferior gemellus
3. Quadratus femoris

30

Generally, what supplies the gluteal region?

Superior and inferior gluteal arteries

31

Generally, what innervates the muscles of the gluteal region?

Lumbosacral plexus

32

What are the 9 muscles of the gluteal region?

1. Gluteus maximus
2. Gluteus medius
3. Gluteus minimus
4. Superior gemellus
5. Inferior gemellus
6. Piriformis
7. Quadratus femoris
8. Obturator internus
9. Tensor fascia lata

33

What is the only muscle of the gluteal region that extends the thigh?

Gluteus maximus

34

What is the only muscle of the gluteal region that flexes the thigh?

Tensor fascia lata

35

What are the 5 muscles of the anterior thigh?

1. Sartorius
2. Rectus femoris
3. Vastus intermedius
4. Vastus lateralis
5. Vastus medialis

36

Where do all 4 quadriceps muscles insert?

Patella and tibial tuberosity

37

What innervates all muscles of the anterior thigh?

Femoral nerve

38

The 4 quadriceps muscles all perform what function?

Extension of leg at knee

39

What is the origin of sartorius?

1. Anterior superior iliac spine

40

What is the insertion of sartorius?

1. Tibia

41

What is the function of sartorius?

1. Flexion of thigh
2. Lateral rotation of thigh
3. Flexion of leg

42

What is the origin of rectus femoris?

1. Anterior superior iliac spine
2. Ilium

43

What is the insertion of rectus femoris?

1. Patella
2. Tibial tuberosity

44

What is the function of rectus femoris?

1. Flexion of thigh
2. Extension of leg

45

What is the origin of vastus medialis?

1. Intertrochanteric line
2. Linea aspera of femur

46

What is the insertion of vastus medialis?

1. Patella
2. Tibial tuberosity

47

What is the function of all the 3 vastus muscles?

1. Extension of leg

48

What is the origin of vastus lateralis?

1. Greater trochanter of femur
2. Linea aspera of femur

49

What is the insertion of vastus lateralis?

1. Patella
2. Tibial tuberosity

50

What is the origin of vastus intermedius?

1. Body of femur

51

What is the insertion of vastus intermedius?

1. Patella
2. Tibial tuberosity

52

Generally, what artery supplies the muscles of the anterior thigh? Specifically, what artery supplies the quadriceps muscles?

Femoral artery; Lateral circumflex femoral artery

53

What are the 7 muscles of the medial thigh?

1. Iliopsoas (iliacus & psoas major)
2. Pectineus
3. Obturator externus
4. Gracilis
5. Adductor brevis
6. Adductor longus
7. Adductor magnus

54

All muscles of the medial thigh insert somewhere on the ___ except for gracilis.

Femur

55

All medial thigh muscles function as flexors of the thigh except for what three?

1. Obturator externus
2. Adductor longus
3. Hamstring part of adductor magnus

56

What is the only medial thigh muscle that extends the thigh?

Adductor magnus (hamstring part)

57

All medial thigh muscles adduct the thigh except for what three muscles?

1. Adductor magnus
2. Obturator externus
3. Iliopsoas

58

Generally, the muscles of the medial thigh are supplied by which artery?

Medial circumflex femoral artery

59

What is the origin of iliopsoas?

1. Iliac fossa
2. Iliac crest
3. Ala of sacrum
4. Anterior sacroiliac ligaments

60

What is the insertion of iliopsoas?

1. Lesser trochanter of femur

61

What is the function of iliopsoas?

1. Flexion of thigh
2. Stabilizes hip

62

What is the origin of pectineus?

1. Superior ramus of pubis

63

What is the insertion of pectineus?

1. Pectineal line of femur

64

What is the function of pectineus?

1. Adduction of thigh
2. Flexion of thigh

65

What is the origin of obturator externus?

1. Obturator foramen
2. Obturator membrane

66

What is the insertion of obturator externus?

1. Trochnateric fossa of femur

67

What is the function of obturator externus?

1. Lateral rotation of thigh
2. Stabilizes femur

68

What is the origin of gracilis?

1. Body of pubis
2. Inferior ramus of pubis

69

What is the insertion of gracilis?

1. Tibia

70

What is the function of gracilis?

1. Adduction of thigh
2. Flexion of thigh
3. Medial rotation of thigh

71

What is the origin of adductor brevis?

1. Body of pubis
2. Inferior pubic ramus

72

What is the insertion of adductor brevis?

1. Pectineal line of femur
2. Linea aspera of femur

73

What is the function of adductor brevis?

1. Adduction of thigh
2. Flexion of thigh (weak)

74

What is the origin of adductor longus?

1. Body of pubis

75

What is the insertion of adductor longus?

1. Linea aspera of femur

76

What is the function of adductor longus?

1. Adduction of thigh

77

What is the origin of adductor magnus (adductor part)?

1. Inferior pubic ramus
2. Ramus of ischium

78

What is the insertion of adductor magnus(adductor part?

1. Gluteal tuberosity
2. Linea aspera of femur

79

What is the function of adductor magnus (adductor part)?

1. Adduction of thigh
2. Flexion of thigh

80

What is the origin of adductor magnus (hamstring part)?

1. Ischial tuberosity

81

What is the insertion of adductor magnus (hamstring part)?

1. Adductor tubercle of femur

82

What is the function of adductor magnus (hamstring portion)?

1. Extension of thigh

83

What are the three muscles of the posterior thigh?

1. Semitendinosus
2. Semimembranosus
3. Biceps femoris

84

What is the origin of all muscles of the posterior thigh except for the short head of the biceps?

Ischial tuberosity

85

What two functions are performed by all muscles of the posterior thigh?

Leg flexion, hip extension

86

What is the origin of semitendinosus?

Ischial tuberosity

87

What is the insertion of semitendinosus?

Medial surface of tibia

88

What is the function of semitendinosus and semimembranosus?

Leg flexion, hip extension

89

What is the origin of biceps femoris?

Long head: ischial tuberosity
Short head: lateral supracondylar line of femur, linea aspera

90

What is the insertion of biceps femoris?

Head of fbibula

91

What is the function of biceps femoris?

Leg flexion, hip extension, lateral rotation of leg

92

Generally, what innervates the muscles of the posterior thigh?

Sciatic nerve (tibial division), except for short head of biceps (sciatic nerve - common fibular division)

93

Generally, what supplies the muscles of the posterior thigh?

Medial circumflex artery, branch of deep femoral artery

94

What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle (superior, medial, lateral, floor)?

Superior - inguinal ligament
Lateral - sartorius
Medial - adductor longus (medial edge)
Floor - iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus

95

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

Terminal part of femoral nerve
Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Deep inguinal lymph nodes

(NAVL)

96

What are the 6 movements of the thigh?

1. Flexion
2. Extension
3. Adduction
4. Abduction
5. Lateral rotation
6. Medial rotation

97

There are 9 hip flexors - what are they?

1. Iliopsoas
2. Sartorius
3. Tensor fascia lata
4. Rectus femoris
5. Pectineus
6. Adductor longus
7. Adductor brevis
8. Adductor magnus (anterior part)
9. Gracilis

98

There are 5 hip extensors - what are they?

1-3. Hamstrings - semitendinosus, semimembranosus, long head of biceps femoris
4. Adductor magnus (posterior hamstring part)
5. Gluteus maximus

99

There are 7 lateral rotators of the hip - what are they?

1. Obturator externus
2. Obturator internus
3. Superior gemellus
4. Inferior gemellus
5. Piriformis
6. Quadratus femoris
7. Gluteus maximus

100

There are 3 medial rotators of the hip - what are they?

1. Gluteus medius
2. Gluteus minimus
3. Tensor fascia lata

101

There are 3 abductors of the hip - what are they?

1. Gluteus medius
2. Gluteus minimus
3. Tensor fascia lata

102

There are 6 adductors of the hip - what are they?

1. Adductor longus
2. Adductor brevis
3. Adductor magnus
4. Gracilis
5. Pectineus
6. Obturator externus

103

What are the 4 muscles of the anterior leg?

1. Tibialis anterior
2. Extensor digitorum longus
3. Extensory hallucis longus
4. Fibularis tertius

104

What is the common origin of all four muscles of the anterior leg?

Interosseous membrane

105

What innervates all four muscles of the anterior leg?

Deep peroneal nerve

106

What is the origin of tibialis anterior?

1. Lateral condyle of tibia
2. Lateral tibia
3. Interosseous membrane

107

What is the origin of extensor digitorum longus?

1. Lateral condyle of tibia
2. Fibula
3. Interosseous membrane

108

What is the origin of extensor hallucis longus?

1. Fibula
2. Interosseous membrane

109

What is the origin of fibularis tertius?

1. Fibula
2. Interosseous membrane

110

What is the insertion of tibialis anterior?

1. Medial cuneiform
2. First metatarsal

111

What is the insertion of extensor digitorum longus?

Lateral four digits

112

What is the insertion of extensor hallucis longus

Big toe

113

What is the insertion of fibularis tertius?

5th metatarsal

114

What are the 2 muscles of the lateral leg?

1. Fibularis brevis
2. Fibularis longus

115

What is the origin of both fibularis brevis and longus?

Fibula

116

What is the insertion of fibularis brevis?

5th metatarsal

117

What is the insertion of fibularis longus?

1st metatarsal; medial cuneiform

118

What innervates the muscles of the lateral leg?

Superficial peroneal nerve

119

What are the three muscles of the posterior leg (superficial)?

1. Gastrocnemius
2. Soleus
3. Plantaris

120

What is the origin of gastrocnemius?

Lateral head - lateral condyle femur
Medial head - surface above medial condyle of femur

121

What is the origin of soleus?

1. Head of fibula
2. Posterior surface of fibula
3. Soleal line of tibia

122

What is the origin of plantaris?

1. Lateral supracondylar line of femur
2. Oblique popliteal ligament

123

What is the common insertion of the muscles of the posterior leg (superficial)?

Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon

124

What innervates the muscles of the posterior leg (superficial and deep)?

Tibial nerve

125

What are the 4 muscles of the posterior leg (deep)?

1. Popliteus
2. Tibialis posterior
3. Flexor digitorum longus
4. Flexor hallucis longus

126

What is the origin of popliteus?

1. Lateral condyle of femur
2. Lateral meniscus

127

What is the origin of tibialis posterior?

1. Posterior tibia
2. Interosseous membrane
3. Posterior fibula

128

What is the origin of flexor digitorum longus?

1. Posterior tibia

129

What is the origin of flexor hallucis longus?

1. Posterior fibula
2. Interosseous membrane

130

What is the insertion of popliteus?

1. Posterior tibia

131

What is the insertion of tibialis posterior?

1. Tuberosity of navicular
2. Cuneiforms
3. Cuboid
4. 2nd-4th metatarsals

132

What is the insertion of flexor digitorum longus?

1. Lateral four digits

133

What is the insertion of flexor hallucis longus?

1. Big toe

134

What are the four movements of the leg (at the knee)?

1. Flexion
2. Extension
3. Lateral rotation
4. Medial rotation

135

What are the 8 flexors of the leg at the knee?

1. Semimembranosus
2. Semitendinosus
3. Biceps femoris
4. Sartorius
5. Gracilis
6. Popliteus
7. Gastrocnemius
8. Plantaris

136

What are the 2 extensors of the leg at the knee?

1. Quadriceps femoris
2. Tensor fascia lata

137

What are the 5 medial rotators of the leg at the knee?

1. Popliteus
2. Semimembranosus
3. Semitendinosus
4. Sartorius
5. Gracilis

138

What is the only lateral rotator of the leg at the knee?

1. Biceps femoris

139

What are the four movements of the foot?

1. Dorsiflexion
2. Plantarflexion
3. Inversion
4. Eversion

140

What 2 muscles of the leg perform dorsiflexion?

1. Tibialis anterior
2. Extensor hallucis longus

141

What 8 muscles of the leg perform plantarflexion?

1. Fibularis brevis (weak)
2. Fibularis longus (weak)
3. Gastrocnemius
4. Soleus
5. Plantaris (weak)
6. Tibialis posterior
7. Flexor digitorum longus
8. Flexor hallucis longus (weak)

142

What 3 muscles of the leg perform inversion?

1. Tibialis anterior
2. Fibularis tertius
3. Tibialis posterior

143

What 2 muscles perform eversion?

1. Fibularis brevis
2. Fibularis longus

144

What muscles raises the heel during walking?

Gastrocnemius

145

What muscle unlocks the knee by rotating the femur?

Popliteus

146

What muscle supports the longitudinal arches?

Flexor digitorum longus

147

What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

1. Biceps femoris
2. Semimembranosus
3. Gastrocnemius (both heads)

148

What are the 6 contents of the popliteal fossa (3 nerves, 2 arteries, 1 vein)?

1. Tibial nerve
2. Common fibular nerve
3. Articular branch of obturator nerve
4. Popliteal vein
5. Popliteal artery
6. Genicular arteries

149

What are the three muscles of the first layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

1. Abductor hallucis
2. Flexor digitorum brevis
3. Abductor digiti minimi

AFA

150

What is the origin of abductor hallucis?

1. Calcaneus
2. Flexor retinaculum
3. Plantar aponeurosis

151

What is the origin of flexor digitorum brevis and abductor digiti minimi?

1. Calcaneus
2. Plantar aponeurosis
3. Intermuscular septum

152

What is the insertion of abductor hallucis?

1. Proximal phalanx of big toe

153

What is the insertion of flexor digitorum brevis?

1. Middle phalanges of digits 2-5

154

What is the insertion of abductor digiti minimi?

1. Proximal phalanx of 5th digit

155

What makes up the second layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

1. Quadratus plantae
2. Lumbricals (4)
3. Tendon of flexor digitorum longus
4. Tendon of flexor hallucis longus

2M (QL) + 2T

156

What is the origin of quadratus plantae?

1. Calcaneus

157

What is the origin of the lumbricals?

1. Tendons of flexor digitorum longus

158

What is the insertion of quadratus plantae?

1. Flexor digitorum longus tendon

159

What is the insertion of the lumbricals?

1. Dorsal digital expansions of lateral 4 digits

160

What are the three muscles of the third layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

1. Flexor hallucis brevis
2. Adductor hallucis
3. Flexor digiti minimi brevis

FAF

161

What is the origin of flexor hallucis brevis?

1. Cuboid
2. Cuneiform

162

What is the origin of adductor hallucis?

Oblique head - 2nd-4th metatarsals
Transverse head - ligaments of MTP joints of digits 3-5

163

What is the origin of flexor digiti minimi brevis?

1. 5th metatarsal

164

What is the insertion of flexor hallucis brevis and adductor hallucis?

Proximal phalanx of big toe

165

What is the insertion of flexor digiti minimi brevis?

1. Proximal phalanx of 5th digit

166

What makes up the fourth layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

1. Plantar interossei
2. Dorsal interossei
3. Tendon of fibularis longus
4. Tendon of tibialis posterior

2M + 2T

167

What is the origin of plantar interossei?

1. 3rd-5th metatarsals

168

What is the origin of dorsal interossei?

1. 1st-5th metatarsals

169

What is the insertion of plantar interossei?

1. Proximal phalanges of 3rd-5th digits

170

What is the insertion of dorsal interossei?

1st - proximal phalanx of 2nd digit
2nd-4th - lateral sides of digits 2-4

171

What 1 muscle abduct the big toe?

1. Abductor hallucis

172

What 3 muscles flex the big toe (only)?

1. Abductor hallucis
2. Flexor hallucis brevis
3. Flexor hallucis longis

173

What 2 muscles flex digits 2-5 (only)?

1. Flexor digitorum brevis
2. Flexor digitorum longus

174

What 1 muscle abducts the fifth digit (only)?

1. Abductor digiti minimi

175

What 2 muscles flexes the 5th digit (only)?

1. Abductor digiti minimi
2. Flexor digiti minimi brevis

176

What does the quadratus plantae do?

1. Flexion of toes (assists)
2. Corrects for oblique pull of flexor digitorum longus tendon

177

What do the lumbricals do?

1. Flexion of proximal phalanges at MTP joint
2. Extension of phalanges at PIP and DIP joints

178

What does adductor hallucis do?

1. Adducts the big toe
2. Maintains the transverse arch

179

What do the interossei do?

Plantar interossei - adduction of digits 2-4
Dorsal interossei - abduction of digits 2-4
Both - flexion of MTP joints, extension of phalanges

180

What muscles extend the big toe?

1. Extensor hallucis longus
2. Extensor hallucis brevis

181

What muscles extend digits 2-4?

1. Extensor digitorum brevis
2. Extensor digitorum longus

182

What 2 muscles are found on the dorsum of the foot?

1. Extensor hallucis brevis
2. Extensor digitorum brevis

183

What is the origin of extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis?

1. Calcaneus

184

What is the insertion of extensor hallucis brevis?

1. Proximal phalanx of big toe

185

What is the insertion of extensor digitorum brevis?

1. Proximal phalanges 2-4