Flashcards in Lower Extremities Deck (185):

1

## What is the origin of obturator internus?

### 1. Obturator membrane

2

## What is the insertion of obturator internus?

### 1. Greater trochanter of the femur

3

## What is the function of obturator internus?

###
1. Lateral rotation of extended thigh at hip

2. Abduction of flexed thigh at hip

4

## What is the origin of superior gemellus?

### 1. Ischial spine

5

## What is the insertion of superior gemellus?

### 1. Greater trochanter of femur

6

## What is the function of superior gemellus?

### 1. Lateral rotation of extended hip at thigh

7

## What is the origin of inferior gemellus?

### 1. Ischial tuberosity

8

## What is the insertion of inferior gemellus?

### 1. Greater trochanter of femur

9

## What is the function of inferior gemellus?

### 1. Lateral rotation of extended hip at thigh

10

## What is the origin of piriformis?

###
1. Sacral segments 2-4

2. Sacrotuberous ligament

11

## What is the insertion of piriformis?

### 1. Greater trochanter of femur

12

## What is the function of piriformis?

###
1. Lateral rotation of extend thigh at hip

2. Abduction of flexed thigh at hip

13

## What is the origin of gluteus minimus?

### 1. Lateral surface of ilium

14

## What is the insertion of gluteus minimus?

### 1. Greater trochanter of femur

15

## What is the function of gluteus minimus?

###
1. Abduction of thigh at hip

2. MEDIAL ROTATION of thigh at hip

3. Steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

16

## What is the origin of gluteus medius?

### 1. Lateral surface of ilium

17

## What is the insertion of gluteus medius?

### 1. Greater trochanter of femur

18

## What is the function of gluteus minimus?

###
1. Abduction of thigh at hip

2. MEDIAL ROTATION of thigh at hip

3. Steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

19

## What is the origin of gluteus maximus?

###
1. Ilium

2. Sacrum and coccyx

3. Sacrotuberous ligament

20

## What is the insertion of gluteus minimus?

###
1. Lateral condyle of tibia

2. Gluteal tuberosity of femur

21

## What is the function of gluteus maximus?

###
1. Extension of flexed thigh

2. Lateral rotation of thigh

3. Abduction of thigh

22

## What is the origin of quadratus femoris?

### 1. Ischial tuberosity

23

## What is the insertion of quadratus femoris?

### 1. Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur

24

## What is the function of quadratus femoris?

### 1. Lateral rotation of hip at thigh

25

## What is the origin of tensor fascia lata?

###
1. Iliac spine

2. Iliac crest

26

## What is the insertion of tensor fascia lata?

### 1. Lateral condyle of tibia

27

## What is the function of tensor fascia lata?

###
1. Abduction of thigh at hip

2. MEDIAL ROTATION of thigh at hip

3. Flexion of thigh at hip

4. Extension of knee (assists)

28

## All of the muscles of the gluteal region are lateral rotators of the extended thigh at the hip EXCEPT for which three muscles?

###
1. Gluteus minimus

2. Gluteus medius

3. Tensor fascia lata

29

## All of the muscles of the gluteal region are abductors of the flexed thigh at the hip EXCEPT for which three muscles?

###
1. Superior gemellus

2. Inferior gemellus

3. Quadratus femoris

30

## Generally, what supplies the gluteal region?

### Superior and inferior gluteal arteries

31

## Generally, what innervates the muscles of the gluteal region?

### Lumbosacral plexus

32

## What are the 9 muscles of the gluteal region?

###
1. Gluteus maximus

2. Gluteus medius

3. Gluteus minimus

4. Superior gemellus

5. Inferior gemellus

6. Piriformis

7. Quadratus femoris

8. Obturator internus

9. Tensor fascia lata

33

## What is the only muscle of the gluteal region that extends the thigh?

### Gluteus maximus

34

## What is the only muscle of the gluteal region that flexes the thigh?

### Tensor fascia lata

35

## What are the 5 muscles of the anterior thigh?

###
1. Sartorius

2. Rectus femoris

3. Vastus intermedius

4. Vastus lateralis

5. Vastus medialis

36

## Where do all 4 quadriceps muscles insert?

### Patella and tibial tuberosity

37

## What innervates all muscles of the anterior thigh?

### Femoral nerve

38

## The 4 quadriceps muscles all perform what function?

### Extension of leg at knee

39

## What is the origin of sartorius?

### 1. Anterior superior iliac spine

40

## What is the insertion of sartorius?

### 1. Tibia

41

## What is the function of sartorius?

###
1. Flexion of thigh

2. Lateral rotation of thigh

3. Flexion of leg

42

## What is the origin of rectus femoris?

###
1. Anterior superior iliac spine

2. Ilium

43

## What is the insertion of rectus femoris?

###
1. Patella

2. Tibial tuberosity

44

## What is the function of rectus femoris?

###
1. Flexion of thigh

2. Extension of leg

45

## What is the origin of vastus medialis?

###
1. Intertrochanteric line

2. Linea aspera of femur

46

## What is the insertion of vastus medialis?

###
1. Patella

2. Tibial tuberosity

47

## What is the function of all the 3 vastus muscles?

### 1. Extension of leg

48

## What is the origin of vastus lateralis?

###
1. Greater trochanter of femur

2. Linea aspera of femur

49

## What is the insertion of vastus lateralis?

###
1. Patella

2. Tibial tuberosity

50

## What is the origin of vastus intermedius?

### 1. Body of femur

51

## What is the insertion of vastus intermedius?

###
1. Patella

2. Tibial tuberosity

52

## Generally, what artery supplies the muscles of the anterior thigh? Specifically, what artery supplies the quadriceps muscles?

### Femoral artery; Lateral circumflex femoral artery

53

## What are the 7 muscles of the medial thigh?

###
1. Iliopsoas (iliacus & psoas major)

2. Pectineus

3. Obturator externus

4. Gracilis

5. Adductor brevis

6. Adductor longus

7. Adductor magnus

54

## All muscles of the medial thigh insert somewhere on the ___ except for gracilis.

### Femur

55

## All medial thigh muscles function as flexors of the thigh except for what three?

###
1. Obturator externus

2. Adductor longus

3. Hamstring part of adductor magnus

56

## What is the only medial thigh muscle that extends the thigh?

### Adductor magnus (hamstring part)

57

## All medial thigh muscles adduct the thigh except for what three muscles?

###
1. Adductor magnus

2. Obturator externus

3. Iliopsoas

58

## Generally, the muscles of the medial thigh are supplied by which artery?

### Medial circumflex femoral artery

59

## What is the origin of iliopsoas?

###
1. Iliac fossa

2. Iliac crest

3. Ala of sacrum

4. Anterior sacroiliac ligaments

60

## What is the insertion of iliopsoas?

### 1. Lesser trochanter of femur

61

## What is the function of iliopsoas?

###
1. Flexion of thigh

2. Stabilizes hip

62

## What is the origin of pectineus?

### 1. Superior ramus of pubis

63

## What is the insertion of pectineus?

### 1. Pectineal line of femur

64

## What is the function of pectineus?

###
1. Adduction of thigh

2. Flexion of thigh

65

## What is the origin of obturator externus?

###
1. Obturator foramen

2. Obturator membrane

66

## What is the insertion of obturator externus?

### 1. Trochnateric fossa of femur

67

## What is the function of obturator externus?

###
1. Lateral rotation of thigh

2. Stabilizes femur

68

## What is the origin of gracilis?

###
1. Body of pubis

2. Inferior ramus of pubis

69

## What is the insertion of gracilis?

### 1. Tibia

70

## What is the function of gracilis?

###
1. Adduction of thigh

2. Flexion of thigh

3. Medial rotation of thigh

71

## What is the origin of adductor brevis?

###
1. Body of pubis

2. Inferior pubic ramus

72

## What is the insertion of adductor brevis?

###
1. Pectineal line of femur

2. Linea aspera of femur

73

## What is the function of adductor brevis?

###
1. Adduction of thigh

2. Flexion of thigh (weak)

74

## What is the origin of adductor longus?

### 1. Body of pubis

75

## What is the insertion of adductor longus?

### 1. Linea aspera of femur

76

## What is the function of adductor longus?

### 1. Adduction of thigh

77

## What is the origin of adductor magnus (adductor part)?

###
1. Inferior pubic ramus

2. Ramus of ischium

78

## What is the insertion of adductor magnus(adductor part?

###
1. Gluteal tuberosity

2. Linea aspera of femur

79

## What is the function of adductor magnus (adductor part)?

###
1. Adduction of thigh

2. Flexion of thigh

80

## What is the origin of adductor magnus (hamstring part)?

### 1. Ischial tuberosity

81

## What is the insertion of adductor magnus (hamstring part)?

### 1. Adductor tubercle of femur

82

## What is the function of adductor magnus (hamstring portion)?

### 1. Extension of thigh

83

## What are the three muscles of the posterior thigh?

###
1. Semitendinosus

2. Semimembranosus

3. Biceps femoris

84

## What is the origin of all muscles of the posterior thigh except for the short head of the biceps?

### Ischial tuberosity

85

## What two functions are performed by all muscles of the posterior thigh?

### Leg flexion, hip extension

86

## What is the origin of semitendinosus?

### Ischial tuberosity

87

## What is the insertion of semitendinosus?

### Medial surface of tibia

88

## What is the function of semitendinosus and semimembranosus?

### Leg flexion, hip extension

89

## What is the origin of biceps femoris?

###
Long head: ischial tuberosity

Short head: lateral supracondylar line of femur, linea aspera

90

## What is the insertion of biceps femoris?

### Head of fbibula

91

## What is the function of biceps femoris?

### Leg flexion, hip extension, lateral rotation of leg

92

## Generally, what innervates the muscles of the posterior thigh?

### Sciatic nerve (tibial division), except for short head of biceps (sciatic nerve - common fibular division)

93

## Generally, what supplies the muscles of the posterior thigh?

### Medial circumflex artery, branch of deep femoral artery

94

## What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle (superior, medial, lateral, floor)?

###
Superior - inguinal ligament

Lateral - sartorius

Medial - adductor longus (medial edge)

Floor - iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus

95

## What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

###
Terminal part of femoral nerve

Femoral artery

Femoral vein

Deep inguinal lymph nodes

(NAVL)

96

## What are the 6 movements of the thigh?

###
1. Flexion

2. Extension

3. Adduction

4. Abduction

5. Lateral rotation

6. Medial rotation

97

## There are 9 hip flexors - what are they?

###
1. Iliopsoas

2. Sartorius

3. Tensor fascia lata

4. Rectus femoris

5. Pectineus

6. Adductor longus

7. Adductor brevis

8. Adductor magnus (anterior part)

9. Gracilis

98

## There are 5 hip extensors - what are they?

###
1-3. Hamstrings - semitendinosus, semimembranosus, long head of biceps femoris

4. Adductor magnus (posterior hamstring part)

5. Gluteus maximus

99

## There are 7 lateral rotators of the hip - what are they?

###
1. Obturator externus

2. Obturator internus

3. Superior gemellus

4. Inferior gemellus

5. Piriformis

6. Quadratus femoris

7. Gluteus maximus

100

## There are 3 medial rotators of the hip - what are they?

###
1. Gluteus medius

2. Gluteus minimus

3. Tensor fascia lata

101

## There are 3 abductors of the hip - what are they?

###
1. Gluteus medius

2. Gluteus minimus

3. Tensor fascia lata

102

## There are 6 adductors of the hip - what are they?

###
1. Adductor longus

2. Adductor brevis

3. Adductor magnus

4. Gracilis

5. Pectineus

6. Obturator externus

103

## What are the 4 muscles of the anterior leg?

###
1. Tibialis anterior

2. Extensor digitorum longus

3. Extensory hallucis longus

4. Fibularis tertius

104

## What is the common origin of all four muscles of the anterior leg?

### Interosseous membrane

105

## What innervates all four muscles of the anterior leg?

### Deep peroneal nerve

106

## What is the origin of tibialis anterior?

###
1. Lateral condyle of tibia

2. Lateral tibia

3. Interosseous membrane

107

## What is the origin of extensor digitorum longus?

###
1. Lateral condyle of tibia

2. Fibula

3. Interosseous membrane

108

## What is the origin of extensor hallucis longus?

###
1. Fibula

2. Interosseous membrane

109

## What is the origin of fibularis tertius?

###
1. Fibula

2. Interosseous membrane

110

## What is the insertion of tibialis anterior?

###
1. Medial cuneiform

2. First metatarsal

111

## What is the insertion of extensor digitorum longus?

### Lateral four digits

112

## What is the insertion of extensor hallucis longus

### Big toe

113

## What is the insertion of fibularis tertius?

### 5th metatarsal

114

## What are the 2 muscles of the lateral leg?

###
1. Fibularis brevis

2. Fibularis longus

115

## What is the origin of both fibularis brevis and longus?

### Fibula

116

## What is the insertion of fibularis brevis?

### 5th metatarsal

117

## What is the insertion of fibularis longus?

### 1st metatarsal; medial cuneiform

118

## What innervates the muscles of the lateral leg?

### Superficial peroneal nerve

119

## What are the three muscles of the posterior leg (superficial)?

###
1. Gastrocnemius

2. Soleus

3. Plantaris

120

## What is the origin of gastrocnemius?

###
Lateral head - lateral condyle femur

Medial head - surface above medial condyle of femur

121

## What is the origin of soleus?

###
1. Head of fibula

2. Posterior surface of fibula

3. Soleal line of tibia

122

## What is the origin of plantaris?

###
1. Lateral supracondylar line of femur

2. Oblique popliteal ligament

123

## What is the common insertion of the muscles of the posterior leg (superficial)?

### Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon

124

## What innervates the muscles of the posterior leg (superficial and deep)?

### Tibial nerve

125

## What are the 4 muscles of the posterior leg (deep)?

###
1. Popliteus

2. Tibialis posterior

3. Flexor digitorum longus

4. Flexor hallucis longus

126

## What is the origin of popliteus?

###
1. Lateral condyle of femur

2. Lateral meniscus

127

## What is the origin of tibialis posterior?

###
1. Posterior tibia

2. Interosseous membrane

3. Posterior fibula

128

## What is the origin of flexor digitorum longus?

### 1. Posterior tibia

129

## What is the origin of flexor hallucis longus?

###
1. Posterior fibula

2. Interosseous membrane

130

## What is the insertion of popliteus?

### 1. Posterior tibia

131

## What is the insertion of tibialis posterior?

###
1. Tuberosity of navicular

2. Cuneiforms

3. Cuboid

4. 2nd-4th metatarsals

132

## What is the insertion of flexor digitorum longus?

### 1. Lateral four digits

133

## What is the insertion of flexor hallucis longus?

### 1. Big toe

134

## What are the four movements of the leg (at the knee)?

###
1. Flexion

2. Extension

3. Lateral rotation

4. Medial rotation

135

## What are the 8 flexors of the leg at the knee?

###
1. Semimembranosus

2. Semitendinosus

3. Biceps femoris

4. Sartorius

5. Gracilis

6. Popliteus

7. Gastrocnemius

8. Plantaris

136

## What are the 2 extensors of the leg at the knee?

###
1. Quadriceps femoris

2. Tensor fascia lata

137

## What are the 5 medial rotators of the leg at the knee?

###
1. Popliteus

2. Semimembranosus

3. Semitendinosus

4. Sartorius

5. Gracilis

138

## What is the only lateral rotator of the leg at the knee?

### 1. Biceps femoris

139

## What are the four movements of the foot?

###
1. Dorsiflexion

2. Plantarflexion

3. Inversion

4. Eversion

140

## What 2 muscles of the leg perform dorsiflexion?

###
1. Tibialis anterior

2. Extensor hallucis longus

141

## What 8 muscles of the leg perform plantarflexion?

###
1. Fibularis brevis (weak)

2. Fibularis longus (weak)

3. Gastrocnemius

4. Soleus

5. Plantaris (weak)

6. Tibialis posterior

7. Flexor digitorum longus

8. Flexor hallucis longus (weak)

142

## What 3 muscles of the leg perform inversion?

###
1. Tibialis anterior

2. Fibularis tertius

3. Tibialis posterior

143

## What 2 muscles perform eversion?

###
1. Fibularis brevis

2. Fibularis longus

144

## What muscles raises the heel during walking?

### Gastrocnemius

145

## What muscle unlocks the knee by rotating the femur?

### Popliteus

146

## What muscle supports the longitudinal arches?

### Flexor digitorum longus

147

## What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

###
1. Biceps femoris

2. Semimembranosus

3. Gastrocnemius (both heads)

148

## What are the 6 contents of the popliteal fossa (3 nerves, 2 arteries, 1 vein)?

###
1. Tibial nerve

2. Common fibular nerve

3. Articular branch of obturator nerve

4. Popliteal vein

5. Popliteal artery

6. Genicular arteries

149

## What are the three muscles of the first layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

###
1. Abductor hallucis

2. Flexor digitorum brevis

3. Abductor digiti minimi

AFA

150

## What is the origin of abductor hallucis?

###
1. Calcaneus

2. Flexor retinaculum

3. Plantar aponeurosis

151

## What is the origin of flexor digitorum brevis and abductor digiti minimi?

###
1. Calcaneus

2. Plantar aponeurosis

3. Intermuscular septum

152

## What is the insertion of abductor hallucis?

### 1. Proximal phalanx of big toe

153

## What is the insertion of flexor digitorum brevis?

### 1. Middle phalanges of digits 2-5

154

## What is the insertion of abductor digiti minimi?

### 1. Proximal phalanx of 5th digit

155

## What makes up the second layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

###
1. Quadratus plantae

2. Lumbricals (4)

3. Tendon of flexor digitorum longus

4. Tendon of flexor hallucis longus

2M (QL) + 2T

156

## What is the origin of quadratus plantae?

### 1. Calcaneus

157

## What is the origin of the lumbricals?

### 1. Tendons of flexor digitorum longus

158

## What is the insertion of quadratus plantae?

### 1. Flexor digitorum longus tendon

159

## What is the insertion of the lumbricals?

### 1. Dorsal digital expansions of lateral 4 digits

160

## What are the three muscles of the third layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

###
1. Flexor hallucis brevis

2. Adductor hallucis

3. Flexor digiti minimi brevis

FAF

161

## What is the origin of flexor hallucis brevis?

###
1. Cuboid

2. Cuneiform

162

## What is the origin of adductor hallucis?

###
Oblique head - 2nd-4th metatarsals

Transverse head - ligaments of MTP joints of digits 3-5

163

## What is the origin of flexor digiti minimi brevis?

### 1. 5th metatarsal

164

## What is the insertion of flexor hallucis brevis and adductor hallucis?

### Proximal phalanx of big toe

165

## What is the insertion of flexor digiti minimi brevis?

### 1. Proximal phalanx of 5th digit

166

## What makes up the fourth layer of the plantar surface of the foot?

###
1. Plantar interossei

2. Dorsal interossei

3. Tendon of fibularis longus

4. Tendon of tibialis posterior

2M + 2T

167

## What is the origin of plantar interossei?

### 1. 3rd-5th metatarsals

168

## What is the origin of dorsal interossei?

### 1. 1st-5th metatarsals

169

## What is the insertion of plantar interossei?

### 1. Proximal phalanges of 3rd-5th digits

170

## What is the insertion of dorsal interossei?

###
1st - proximal phalanx of 2nd digit

2nd-4th - lateral sides of digits 2-4

171

## What 1 muscle abduct the big toe?

### 1. Abductor hallucis

172

## What 3 muscles flex the big toe (only)?

###
1. Abductor hallucis

2. Flexor hallucis brevis

3. Flexor hallucis longis

173

## What 2 muscles flex digits 2-5 (only)?

###
1. Flexor digitorum brevis

2. Flexor digitorum longus

174

## What 1 muscle abducts the fifth digit (only)?

### 1. Abductor digiti minimi

175

## What 2 muscles flexes the 5th digit (only)?

###
1. Abductor digiti minimi

2. Flexor digiti minimi brevis

176

## What does the quadratus plantae do?

###
1. Flexion of toes (assists)

2. Corrects for oblique pull of flexor digitorum longus tendon

177

## What do the lumbricals do?

###
1. Flexion of proximal phalanges at MTP joint

2. Extension of phalanges at PIP and DIP joints

178

## What does adductor hallucis do?

###
1. Adducts the big toe

2. Maintains the transverse arch

179

## What do the interossei do?

###
Plantar interossei - adduction of digits 2-4

Dorsal interossei - abduction of digits 2-4

Both - flexion of MTP joints, extension of phalanges

180

## What muscles extend the big toe?

###
1. Extensor hallucis longus

2. Extensor hallucis brevis

181

## What muscles extend digits 2-4?

###
1. Extensor digitorum brevis

2. Extensor digitorum longus

182

## What 2 muscles are found on the dorsum of the foot?

###
1. Extensor hallucis brevis

2. Extensor digitorum brevis

183

## What is the origin of extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis?

### 1. Calcaneus

184

## What is the insertion of extensor hallucis brevis?

### 1. Proximal phalanx of big toe

185