Flashcards in 9.20.16 Overview of Body Terminology Deck (31):
Describe the anatomical planes of the body.
1. Coronal/frontal: vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
2. Transverse/horizontal: horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
3. Sagittal: vertical plane that passes parallel to the median plane; the median is the midline of the body that divides it into equal right and left halves.
List the terms of position.
1. Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal): in front of/behind
2. Superior (cranial)/Inferior (caudal): above/below
3. Deep (internal)/Superficial (external): Further from the body surface/closer to the body surface
4. Medial/Lateral: closer to the median/further from the median
5. Proximal/Distal: closer to the trunk or origin/away from the trunk or origin
6. Ipsilateral/Contralateral: same side of the body/opposite side of the body
Describe the anatomical position.
Standing erect, head directed forward, neck vertical, eyes looking to the distance, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward and thumbs lateral, legs placed together with feet together facing forward.
Describe flexion and extension.
Flexion decreases the angle of the joint and brings two bones together. Extension increases the angle between two bones and brings two bones further away from each other.
Describe abduction and adduction.
Abduction is movement of a limb away from the midline. Adduction is a movement of a limb toward the midline. (Latin - Ab = away from, Ad = toward)
Describe supination and pronation.
Supination is lateral rotation of the forearm causing the palm to face anteriorly. Pronation is medial rotation of the forearm causing the palm to face posteriorly.
Rotation is movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis.
Describe inversion and eversion.
Inversion is movement of the sole towards the midline (turning the sole of the foot inwards or medially). Eversion is movement of the sole away from the midline (turning the sole of the foot outwards or laterally).
Describe dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.
Dorsiflexion is lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin. Plantar flexion is depressing the foot.
Circumduction is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
Describe opposition and reposition
Opposition brings the thumb and little finger together. Reposition moves the thumb and the little finger away from each other.
Describe protraction and retraction.
Protraction is movement of a body part in the anterior direction. Retraction is movement of a body part in the posterior direction.
Describe elevation and depression.
Elevation is movement in a superior direction. Depression is movement in an inferior direction.
Describe the axial and appendicular skeletons.
The axial skeleton includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column (spine), ribs, and sternum. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs, including the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which attach the limbs to the axis.
What are the 5 types of bones and an example of each?
1. Long bone (femur)
2. Short bone (carpal bones)
3. Flat bone (parietal)
4. Irregular bone (vertebrae)
5. Sesamoid bone (bones developed in a tendon or muscle; patella)
What are the 5 general features of bones?
1. Articular surface
2. Sharp bony prominence
3. Blunt bony prominence
4. Bony depression
5. Bony hole
What are three names for articular surfaces?
Facets, condyles, epicondyles
What are four names for sharp bony prominences?
Processes, protuberances, crests, and spines
What are three names for blunt bony prominences?
Tubercles, tuberosities, and tronachters
What are three names for bony depressions?
Fossae, grooves, fissures
What are two names for bony holes?
What is the surface of a skeletal formation that makes normal direct contact with another skeletal structure as part of a synovial joint?
What is a bony prominence?
Any point on the body where the bone is immediately below the skin surface
What are the three types of joints?
Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
What are the six types of synovial joints?
Plane, pivot, hinge, saddle, condylar, ball and socket
What is the fascia?
Band or sheet of connective tissue (primarily collagen) beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs.
What are the 2 types of fascia?
Superficial and deep
What is the rule of movement?
If a muscle crosses a joint, it will act at that joint.
Skeletal muscles are usually attached to bones via tendons at sites known as ___ and ___.
What are the three types of blood vessels?
Arteries, veins, and capillaries