Flashcards in A&P Chapter 7 Skeletal System Deck (80):
What are the Treatments for Osteoporosis?
1. Staying Active: Stimulates Osteoblasts
2. Diet/Supplements rich in Calcium and Vit. D
3. Medications such as Fosamax and Boniva.
The medications are designed to inhibit osteoclast activity, this tilts the balance towards bone deposition however there are side effects, they can affect fracture repair, they could lower Blood calcium levels, and they could affect pregnant women or their fetus.
What are other bone disorders?
Rickets, Osteogenesis imperfect, Osteosarcoma, Achondroplastic dwarfism, Acromegaly, Gigantism.
Creates abnormal bone formation due to lack of Vit. D, calitriol or calcium/phosphate.
Weight bearing bones such as the femur often bow in/out due to softness of bones.
Describe Osteogenesis imperfecta
A defect in collagen deposition results in bones that are VERY brittle and break very easily, bones are almost chalky.
Remember collagen is an Organic component of bone that provides flexibility.
A lethal form of bone cancer most common in males in their teens and 20's. It ORIGINATES in bone which is different from cancers that metastasize to bone.
It can be treated with radical surgery (amputations) but often metastasizes.
Describe Achondroplastic dwarfism
The Chondrocytes stop dividing in long bones resulting in short arms and legs but normal trunk and head.
The epiphyseal plate which is a layer of hyaline cartilage sandwiched between two metaphysis. When the chondrocytes in the cartilage don't divide fast enough the Osteoblasts catch up and ossify the cartilage resulting in the Epiphyseal plate fusing prematurely preventing long bone growth.
The over production of human growth hormones often due to a pituitary gland tumor results in thickening and widening of the bones AFTER the epiphyseal plate has closed.
Results from an overproduction of human growth hormones and affects bone development/metabolism.
Often due to a pituitary tumor, Gigantism effects overall bone growth including length because it occurs BEFORE the epiphyseal plate closes.
What are the Cranial sinuses also known as?
Name the Paranasal sinuses
Sphenoid, Frontal, Ethmoid and Maxillary
What are the two largest sinuses?
The Frontal and Maxillary
Sinuses are line with what?
Mucous Membranes which contain epithelial tissue with many Goblet cells.
The sinuses function to do what?
Reduce the weight of the head (slightly), Important for the resonance of the voice and produce mucous to moisten the air as it enters the body.
Where do ALL of the paranasal sinuses drain?
Into the Nasal Cavity
How do sinuses react to pollen, dust and bacteria/viruses?
The mucous membranes in the sinuses produce large amounts of mucous in order to flush out the irritant. This produces a runny nose.
What forms sinus headaches/tooth aches?
Blockage of the passages from the sinuses to the nasal cavity.
Which sinus has the worst design and has to be almost completely full before it will drain?
The Maxillary Sinus
What drug is used to reduce inflammation and allow sinuses to drain?
What is affected when sinuses become full due to improper drainage from cold or allergies?
Why is the Ethmoid bone so important?
It makes up important parts of many structures in the Nasal Cavity such as:
The medial wall of the orbit (The Oribital plates)
2/3rds of the nasal septum (The Perpendicular Plate)
The Superior and Middle Nasal Conchae
The cribriform plate provides the foramina for the olfactory nerves providing for a sense of smell.
What are the Nasal Conchae important for?
Circulating, warming, humidifying and filtering incoming air on the way to the lungs.
The group of Ethmoid cells make up what?
The Ethmoid Sinus
Severe damage to the Cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone can lead to what?
A severing of the olfactory nerves and a loss of smell called ANOSIA
What is the loss of the sense of smell called?
As infants we start with how many bones approximately? How many do we have as adults? What happens to the bones as we grow?
We start with 270 fetal bones and we end up with 206 bones as adults.
Fusion of bones occurs during infancy and throughout development.
What are Fontanelles?
The soft spaces between skull bones in infants.
Why are Fontanelles important?
They allow for flexability resulting in the head of an infant to pass through the birth canal.
They also allow for the brain to grow more quickly than the rest of the skeletal system.
When do skull bones fuse resulting in what?
Around 1 year resulting in Cranial Sutures
How does the mandible develop?
As two individual bones separated by cartilage which fuses around 1 year of age resulting in ossified cartilage and the Mandibular symphysis.
Which bone results in COMPLETE FUSION with no visible lines? What are the bones and what is the fuse product called?
The pelvis, it is formed from 2 OS COXAE which contain the fused bones of the Pubis, Ilium and Ischium.
What is an OS COXAE? How many do we have? Where are they?
It is the combined bones of the Pubis, Ilium and Ischium. We have TWO OS COXAE and together they form the Pelvis.
How many vertebrae do the Sacrum and Coccyx develop from?
The fusion of 9 total vertebrae, 5 in the Sacrum and 4 in the Coccyx.
What forms the posterior wall of the pelvic cavity?
The Sacrum and Coccyx
Where do nerves from the spinal cord exit through?
The Intervertebral Foramen
What forms the Intervertebral Foramen?
The INFERIOR vertebral notch of the Upper vertebrae and the SUPERIOR intervertebral notch of the lower vertebrae.
Each vertebrae is separated by what?
A Cushioned disc called an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC
What are the Intervertebral discs made of?
The Inner portion is a gelatinous mass called the Nucleus Pulposus
The Outer ring of Fibrous connective tissue is the ANNULUS FIBROSUS.
What is the NUCLEUS PULPOSUS?
The Gelatinous mass that forms the inner portion of the Intervertebral disc.
What is the ANNULUS FIBROSUS?
The Fibrous connective tissue that forms the outer ring of the Intervertebral disc.
What do the Intervertebral discs do?
They cushion the vertebral column from the weight of the body and shock from running and walking.
What is a herniated or ruptured disc?
When excessive shock or stress causes the Anulus fibrosus to break allowing the nucleus pulposus to leak out.
What is the potential result of a herniated disc?
Narrowing of the intervertebral foramen resulting in pinched spinal nerves.
Vertebrae can also begin to rub on ne another causing bone to wear away resulting in SPINAL STENOSIS where osteoblast activity is increased due to the rubbing of bone on bone which leads to bone deposition further narrowing the intervertebral foramen.
What is SPINAL STENOSIS?
The result of vertebrae rubbing together, new bone is laid down when bone rubs away bone which narrows the intervertebral foramen further.
What is the Primary curvature? When do we have it?
A single C-Shaped curve, it is present in infants who haven't learned to raise their heads, sit up or walk.
What are the Secondary curvatures of the spine?
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Pelvic
What Secondary curvature is first seen?
The Cervical curvature, it occurs when an infant learns to raise it's head.
What curvatures are seen when you learn to Sit up?
Thoracic and Lumbar
What curvature is seen when you learn to walk?
The Pelvic curvature.
Why are the curvatures of the spine important?
They allow for the proper distribution of weight along a single vertical axis, allowing us to walk upright and maintain balance.
What are the spinal curvature disorders?
Scoliosis, Kyphosis, and Lordosis
The abnormal curvature of the spine AWAY from the midline, LEFT or RIGHT.
Usually seen in the thoracic region, it often results from the abnormal growth of the vertebral body on one side.
The excessive curvature of the cervical vertebrae. Also known as hunchback or Widow's hump.
Often the result of Osteoporosis which causes the vertebral bodies in the cervical vertebrae to compress.
The excessive curvature of the Lumbar vertebrae, also known as Swayback.
This can be a result of pregnancy or obesity.
In extreme cases of Spinal Curvature disorders what is done?
Surgical implantation of metal rods along the vertebral column.
What is a Joint? What do joints allow for?
The location at which two or more bones meet and come into contact with one another.
They allow for ARTICULATION of bones.
What is ATHROLOGY?
The Study of Joints
What are the classifications of Joints based on movement?
Synarthroidal, Amphiarthroidal, and Diarthroidal
What are Synarthroidal joints? Give an Example
Joints with NO movement.
The joints between the bones of the skull.
What are Amphiarthroidal joints? Give an Example
Partially moveable joints.
The Collarbone, sternoclavicular joint.
What are Diarthroidal joints? Give an Example
Freely moveable joints, these are the most common joints, like the hip, elbow, wrist, ect...
What are the four general categories Anatomists put joints into?
Bony, Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial
Describe Bony joints
Immovable joints where two or more bones have fused and are now essentially one bone. These are also SYNARTHROIDAL joints because they allow no movement.
The OS Coxae of the pelvis is a good example, so is the Mandible
Describe Fibrous joints
Joints in which adjacent bones are connected via fibrous connective tissue (collagen fibers), these joints allow VERY little movement if any.
What are the three types of Fibrous joints?
Sutures, Gomphoses, and Syndesmoses
The immoveable joints found only in the bones of the skull.
A unique joint between the tooth and the maxilla or mandible.
The tooth (which is not a bone) is attached to the maxilla or mandible via the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT, allows a very small amount of movement when chewing.
A fibrous joint in which two bones are connected via longer collagen fibers. Sort of arbitrary but longer than sutures or gomphoses.
Really only found as INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE between radius and ulna or Tibia and Fibula.
This allows you to Pronate or Supinate your hands.
Describe Cartilaginous joints
A Joint where two or more bones are connected by cartilage. Sometimes called AMPHIARTHROIDAL (Somewhat moveable)
What are the two types of Cartilaginous joints?
Synchondroses and Sympheses
Describe a Synchondroses Cartilaginous joint
A joint in which bones are connected by Hyaline cartilage.
The Ephiphyseal plate is considered a Synchondroses, so the joint between the Epiphyses and Diaphysis of a long bone.
Another example is the joint between the rib and sternum which is connected by Costal cartilage.
Describe a Sympheses Cartilaginous joint
Joints that are connected by FIBROCARTILAGE.
These joints are relatively immoveable.
Examples are the Intervertebral joints, two vertebrae connected by an intervertebral disc.
The Public symphysis two public bones joined by a disc of fibrocartilage. This joint is loosened by hormones during childbirth.
Describe Synovial Joints
A joint in which two or more bones are separated by both HYALINE CARTILAGE AND A FLUID FILLED JOINT CAVITY
Most common joint in the body
What is ARTICULAR CARTILAGE? What type of joints is it found in?
The layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of bones.
Found in Synovial Joints
What is an ARTICULAR CAPSULE?
The structure that encloses a fluid filled cavity that separates two bones in a Synovial joint.
The Outer layer is the Fibrous capsule which is reinforced by ligaments.
The Inner layer is the Synovial Membrane that synthesizes Synovial Fluid
Describe Synovial Fluid
The Viscous fluid that functions to cushion, nourish and lubricate the articular cartilage between two bones in a Synovial joint.
How many types of Synovial joints are there? How are they classified? What are the classifications?
There are 6 types of synovial joints and they are classified by the type of movement they allow.
Uniaxial, Biaxial, Multiaxial
Describe a Uniaxial Synovial Joint
Allows movement in one plane. The Elbow is an Example
Describe a Biaxial Synovial Joint
Allows movement in two planes, the Thumb is an Example.
Describe a Multiaxial Synovial Joint
Allows movement in multiple planes, the Shoulder and Hip are Examples.