Flashcards in A&P Chapters 1-4 Themes of A&P, Chemistry of Life Deck (77):
Describe Anatomy, What is it? How do we study it?
Form, what something is. The study of structure. We observe it, see it, feel it, hear it.
Describe Physiology, what is it? How do we study it?
Physiology is the study of function. What does it do? How does it do it? We study it with scientific experiments.
Describe methods of studying anatomy.
Inspection, seeing a structure.
Palpation, physically touching something.
Auscultation, listening to something.
Percussion, tapping on a structure and noting the sound and physical resistance that results.
Dissection, cutting into the body to reveal the parts inside.
What is gross anatomy?
The study of structures we can see with the naked eye.
What is histology?
The study of structures at the microscopic, cellular level using a microscope.
In terms of physiology, what is the difference between an experimental group and a control group? What is the same about the two groups?
An experimental group is the group that is being observed for changes relating to the experimental variable. A control group is as much like the experimental group as possible. Neither group knows which group they are as not to affect the outcome. Everything is the same between the two groups except for the variable being examined.
List the structural hierarchy of the human body from smallest to largest.
Atoms, Molecules, Macromolecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, The Human Body
Describe Anatomical Position, Why is it important?
Anatomical position is standing upright, feet flat on the ground, arms at the side, palms facing forward with eyes and face facing forward.
It is important because as anatomists it provides a consistent universal frame of reference that we can use when talking about a location.
Describe ventral, what is its opposite?
Term for front or belly.
It's opposite is dorsal.
Describe anterior, what is it's opposite?
Anterior describes the front or towards the ventral side.
It's opposite is posterior, towards the rear or dorsal side.
Describe superior and list it's opposite.
Superior refers to above a structure or towards the head.
It's opposite is inferior or below or towards the feet.
Describe medial and list it's opposite.
Medial refers to something that is closer to the midline or midplane.
It's opposite is lateral or something that is further from the midline.
Describe proximal and list it's opposite.
Proximal is referring to a structure closer to its point of attachment or trunk.
It's opposite is distal or further from the point of attachment or trunk.
Describe superficial and list it's opposite.
Superficial refers to closer to the body surface.
It's opposite is deep referring to farther from the body surface.
Describe the three anatomical planes.
Frontal, divides the body into anterior and posterior sections or dorsal/ventral regions.
Sagittal, divides the body into left and right regions.
Transverse, divides the body into superior and inferior regions.
What are the two main body regions? What is located within the regions?
Axial region, contains the head, neck and trunk. Trunk=above the diaphragm.
Appendicular region, contains the upper and lower limb.
What are the primary body cavities?
Dorsal, containing the cranial cavity with the brain and the vertebral cavity with the spinal cord.
Pleural cavity- lungs
Pericardial cavity- heart
Mediastinum- esophagus, trachea, and heart.
Abdominal cavity- digestive organs, spleen, kidneys
Pelvic cavity- bladder, rectum, reproductive organs
Name the three double layered cavities.
Pericardial, the heart.
Pleural, the lungs.
Peritoneal, abdomen/pelvic region.
The parietal layer does what?
Lines a cavity I.e. the parietal pleura
The visceral layer does what?
Lines an organ I.e. the visceral pericardium.
What is the space between the two layers of a cavity? Why is it important to have separation?
The space between is the cavity I.e. the pleural cavity. It is important because it compartmentalizes the body and organs keeping the separate. This is important because it helps to prevent sites of infection and inflammation from spreading to other areas.
What is homeostasis?
The ability of the body to maintain itself. The concept that the body will react to internal and external changes to maintain a normal state.
Describe negative feedback.
Process by which the body recognizes a change and tries to reverse those changes.
The body will detect rising body temperature and dilate blood vessels close to the skin surface while at the same time triggering the skin to begin sweating both help to cool and the body and thus reverse the rising temperature.
Describe positive feedback.
The process by which the body detects a change and produces a greater change in the same direction. This is less common than negative feedback.
The example so uterine contractions, wherein the body detects pressure on the cervix releasing a hormone which cause the increase in contractions until childbirth has completed.
In what order are the following typically used to bring about change. Brain, effectors, receptors and sensors.
Sensors and receptors, brain, effectors.
Sensors and receptors detect the change and send signals to the brain which then tells the effectors what to do to change the situation and restore homeostasis.
List the charges for an atom and where structures lie.
Protons = +
Electrons = -
Neutrons = no charge
Protons and neutrons exist in the nucleus while electrons hover in a cloud surrounding the nucleus. The first rig of electrons has a max total of 2 every ring after that has a max total of 8. The outermost ring is known as the valence ring with valence electrons.
Atomic number is the number of protons.
Atomic mass is the combine number of protons/neutrons.
What is an ion? List the types of ions.
An ion is an atom with a - or + charge.
Cation = positively charged.
Anion = negatively charged.
Charge is dictated by numbers of protons and electrons. If the atom has more electrons it will be negatively charged and thus an anion. If the atom has more protons than electrons it will be positively charged and thus a cation.
Charge and number of electrons dictate an atoms behavior and reactivity.
Define a covalent bond.
When electrons are shared to fill the valence ring.
Define polarity as it relates to covalent bonds.
Unequal sharing of electrons occurs when electrons are pulled towards one nucleus over another usually due to one nucleus having more protons than the other. More mass at one side is going to pull the electrons. This forms a polar covalent bond.
H2O is an example of a polar bond. The oxygen atom has more mass and pulls the electrons from the hydrogen atoms towards it resulting in a negative charge near the oxygen atom and a positive charge near the hydrogen atoms.
What are the types of chemical bonds? List them from weakest to strongest.
Hydrogen, ionic and covalent.
Hydrogen bonds, very weak easily made and broken. There is no transfer or sharing of electrons.
Ionic bonds, pretty weak. Involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
Covalent bonds, very strong and not easily broken. Involves the sharing of electrons between atoms.
NaCl is formed from what kind of bond?
An ionic bond. Na+ and Cl-
Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction of a cation to an anion.
What charge does an Anion have?
What charge does a Cation have?
A _______ bond requires the ________ charge of O,N, or P atoms.
Hydrophilic molecules dissolve in _________
Water, typically polar.
When referring to solubility ________ dissolves _________.
Like dissolves like.
Polar will dissolve polar and non-polar will dissolve non-polar.
Hydrophobic molecules are _____________ and __________ dissolve in water.
Non-polar and do not dissolve in water.
Fats and oils.
Acids are molecules that can give up ________.
They range from _____ to _____ on the ph scale.
Bases are molecules that can accept ________.
They range from ____ to ____ on the ph scale.
Water is where on the ph scale?
Blood ph needs to be _____.
Changes in body ph affect hydrogen bonding and therefore affect the function of many enzymes, hormones and drugs.
Low ph DENATURES proteins, DNA, RNA and prevents cells from functioning. To denature is to drastically change the conformation of a protein or DNA/RNA.
Anabolic reactions do what?
Builds something up from smaller units often USING energy.
Catabolic reactions do what?
Break larger molecules down into smaller molecules often RELEASING energy.
ATP + H2O ------> ADP + P + Energy (to be used by the cells)
Many chemical reactions in the body occur slowly and need a __________ to speed them up.
A catalyst. Biological catalysts are called enzymes.
Enzymes are what and do what?
Are proteins that help form or break chemical bonds often making reactions occur 1,000 or 1,000,000 times faster.
Enzymes are very specific about which molecules they will bind and reactions they carry out.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which a molecule.......
Gives up an electron and RELEASES energy.
Reduction is a chemical reaction in which a molecule.....
Gains an electron often ACQUIRING more energy.
In biological redox reactions, electrons are often transferred in the form of a ___________ atom.
Hydrogen atom, hydrogens 1 proton simply goes along for the ride.
[_]-C-OH [_]-C=O Traveling right the reaction is oxidation and to the left the reaction is a reduction.
What is a free radical??
Molecules with an extra electron.
Oxygen exists normally as O2 but can pick up an extra electron during normal metabolic reactions or through exposure to radiation I.e. UV light, x rays, or to chemicals.
Oxygen free radicals do serve a purpose in killing bacteria and viruses by WBC's but you only need a small number in the right places.
Free radicals are very dangerous and can damage DNA, proteins, cell membranes. Damage from oxidation is linked to heart disease, inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Free radicals are normally controlled and neutralized by antioxidants. Antioxidant enzymes made in our bodies and vitamins in the food we eat, vitamin A,C,E ect.
What is organic chemistry?
The study of carbon containing compounds.
Organic molecules contain a carbon backbone, simply a long chain of carbon atoms often branched or in a ring structure with a variety of functional groups attached.
What are the five functional groups we need to know?
Methyl -CH3, Fats,Oils, Steroids, Amino Acids
Hydroxyl -OH, Sugars, Alcohols
Carboxyl -COOH, Amino Acids, Sugars, Proteins
Amino -NH2, Amino Acids, Proteins
Phosphate -H2PO4, Nucleic Acids, ATP
Name the respective monomer for the produced polymer.
Amino acids combine to form Proteins
Nucleotides combine to form DNA, RNA
Monosaccharides combine to form Polysaccharides
Fatty acids or Glycerol combine to form Lipids or Fats
Monomer equals ?
Dimer equals ?
Required for polymerization, involves the removal of H2O
Addition of H2O to break polymers into monomers.
List the seven functions of proteins.
1. Structure, collagen/keratin make up our bones, skin and hair.
2. Communication, peptide hormones carry signals from cells to other cells.
3. Transport, channels and transporters on cell surfaces regulate what goes in and out of cells.
4. Catalysis, enzymes speed up normal slow reactions.
5. Recognition and Protection, proteins on cell surface specify our bodies cells from others.
6. Movement, cilia and flagella help move things. Actin/myosin allow muscles to contract and move the body.
7. Cell adhesion, proteins allow cells to attach to one another and to other structures.
How many amino acids are there? They form what? And how many can our bodies synthesize?
Describe amino acid functional groups.
20, they form proteins and our body can synthesize 12, we need to get the other 8 from food we eat. These are the 8 essential amino acids.
All amino acids have a similar backbone and then a varying Functional group.
The functional groups dictate amino acid behavior. They can be large or small and can make amino acids polar, non-polar, basic, acidic...ect.
Amino acids are connected via ________ bonds to form proteins.
Peptide bonds. 2 Amino Acid chain = Dipeptide bond. 3 Amino Acid chain = Tripeptide bond. Many Amino Acid chain = Polypeptide bond.
Carbohydrates are composed of what?
They are an important molecule the body uses for energy. They are redialy available from plant sources and are the main source of calories in most diets.
Of all the nutrients (carbs, fats, proteins) Carbs are the easiest to convert to useable energy.
What are the three primary Carbohydrate monomers?
1. Glucose, the main source of energy for most cells, brain and nerve cells require glucose. Think about what happens to a diabetic who doesn't eat enough sugars.
2. Galactose, chemically similar to glucose.
3. Fructose, common sugar found in fruits.
All end up as or a derivative of glucose.
What are the three primary Disaccharides? What do each digest to? How are they built up and broken down?
1. Sucrose, table sugar. Digested to 1 glucose and 1 fructose.
2. Lactose, milk sugar. Digested to 1 glucose and 1 galactose.
3. Maltose, malt sugar. Digested to 2 molecules of glucose.
Disaccharides are created/linked via DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS reactions and broken down into monosaccharides by HYDROLYSIS reactions.
List the three polysaccharides.
1. Cellulose, structural carbohydrate of plants. Can't be digested by humans, reffered to as dietary fiber.
2. Starch, Energy storage carbohydrate in plants. The main digestable polysaccharide in our diets.
3. Glycogen, Energy storage carbohydrate in HUMANS. Readily accessible source of energy that is stored up when we eat excess food. Primarily stored in the liver but also found in muscle and brain tissues.
Describe the flow of genetic information.
Genetic information is stored in every cell as DNA. DNA is the blueprint for making proteins and thus basically everything. When a cell wants to make a protein to do something the DNA stored in the nucleus is copied forming RNA. RNA is used by the cell to make the needed protein.
This process forms all the cells and structures in the body.
The process of making a copy of the DNA into RNA.
The process of making a protein using information encoded in RNA.
Ribonucleic acid, chemically similar to DNA, functions as a disposable copy of DNA that remains in the cell cytoplasm.
List the three components of a Nucleotide.
1. Sugar. Deoxyribose (DNA) or Ribose (RNA)
2. A Phosphate Group (H2PO4)
3. Nitrogenous Base, there are 5 different bases in DNA and RNA.
What are the four nucleotides that form DNA?
DNA is a polymer of AGTC
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine
What are the four nucleotides that form RNA?
RNA is a polymer of AGUC
Adenine, Guanine, Uracil, Cytosine
Describe DNA structure.
Polymer of AGTC. Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine.
DNA is a double stranded molecule that takes on a double helix conformation.
Two separate DNA molecules twisted together to form a twisted ladder.
Describe RNA structure.
Polymer of AGUC. Adenine, Guanine, Uracil, Cytosine.
RNA is single stranded. RNA is used as a disposable copy of DNA. Any nucleic acid that contains Uracil is an RNA.
Lipids are organic, hydrophobic molecules that play a large number of roles in human physiology.
What are the five major types of lipids.
1. Fatty Acids: Monomer to form Triglyceride. Fairly small molecules which are often precursors to triglycerides.
2. Triglycerides: Molecule consisting of glycerol bound to three fatty acids via DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS. Common type of fat found in foods we eat.
3. Phospholipids: Similar to triglycerides except one fatty acid is replaced by a PHOSPHATE group. Very important component of all cell membranes.
4. Eicosanoids: 20-carbon lipid derived from arachadonic acid that plays an important role in inflammation, cell signaling and blood clotting.
5. Steroids: 17-carbon, 4-ring lipid. Cholesterol is the "parent" steroid. Homones like testosterone, estrogen, cortisol are steroids derived from cholesterol.
Describe Saturated Fats.
Saturated fats are lipids whose fatty acid tails are completely saturated with hydrogen. Solid at room temp because they form straight tails because they are completely saturated with hydrogen. Thus they pack together tightly like a stack of paper making them solid at room temp. Come from animal sources i.e. lard, butter, ect.... High consumption linked to cardiovascular disease.
Describe Unsaturated Fats.
Unsaturated fats are lipids whose fatty acid tails are not saturated with hydrogen. One or more carbon atoms have double bonds to other carbon atoms. This results in a kinked or bent tail that doesn't lay flat and stack together. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temp. They come from plants such as olive oil, corn oil, ect....
Carbon/Carbon double bonds in unsaturated fats causes kinks and bends in F.A. tail, preventing molecules from packing together (stays liquid at room temp.)
Describe a Phospholipids.
Major component of all cell membranes.
Has a head region composed of glycerol and a phosphate group. This makes the head region very POLAR and HYDROPHILIC.
Has two fatty acid tails that are largely NONPOLAR and HYDROPHOBIC.
They form cell membranes by double layering with the glycerol/phosphate head on the outer edges with the fatty acid tails facing in.