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Flashcards in A-words Deck (25):
1

Actin and myosin

proteins responsible for muscle contraction

2

Active transport

energy requiring translocation of a substance across the membrane against its electrochemical gradient

3

Afterhyperpolarization

hyperpolarization following an action potential

4

Agonist

a substance that has the same effect on a receptor as a mediator or transmitter

5

Albumin

largest protein fraction in the blood plasma, mainly responsible for the colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma

6

Aldo-sugar

sugar containing an aldehyde group, e.g. glucose, galactose

7

All-or-none-response

regardless of the amplitude of the stimulus, if the stimulus reaches threshold and action potential will follow

8

Arteriole

muscular vessels connecting arteries and capillaries

9

Autoimmune disease

erroneous immune response of an organism against its own proteins or macromolecules

10

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, molecule used as an energy source by all cells

11

Atrium

chamber in the heart where venous blood returns

12

Axon

long projection of a neuron that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the soma

13

Axonal transport

transport mechanism of the axon that transports substances toward the soma and axonal terminals

14

Antagonist

a substance that stops the effect of a mediator or transmitter on a receptor

15

Alpha helix

the coiled structure of many proteins consisting of a single chain of amino acids stabilized by hydrogen bonds

16

Alveoli

unit of the lung where gases are exchanged, through the alveoli walls

17

Antigen

any substance that will cause an immune response that produces antibodies against it

18

Antibody

protein molecule produced by lymphocytes that specifically binds to antigens

19

Apnea

suspension or absence of breath

20

Annulus fibrous

sheet of connective tissue separating the atria from ventricles and providing anchoring points for the valves

21

Arteriovenous oxygen difference

difference in the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial and venous blood flowing to and from organs

22

Atrioventricular node

specialized conduction tissue in the heart located at the border of the right atrium and ventricle

23

Arteriovenous anastomosis

short vessels connecting arterioles and venules, found especially in the skin

24

Alpha carbon atom

C-atom closest to the carboxyl group in organic acids

25

Anisotropic substance

differentially transparent to polarized light depending on the plane of light