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Flashcards in P-words Deck (31):
1

paracrine communication

when the signal reaches the target cell via the interstitial space

2

paravertebral ganglia

chain of ganglia connected with nerve trunks along the spinal cord that contains sympathetic postganglionic neurons

3

peptide

short protein molecule

4

peptide bond

a covalent bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain

5

peripheral (extrinsic) protein

protein located at the internal or external surface of the cell membrane

6

permeability

ability of a compound to cross the membrane; it depends on the characteristics of the compound and of the membrane

7

phagocyte

cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria and dead or dying cells

8

phagocytosis

forms of endocytosis to take up solid particles or fluid into the cell

9

phosphoglyceride

glycerol-based phospholipid, main component of biological membranes

10

phospholipid

phosphorus-containing lipid

11

phosphorylation

incorporation of a phosphate group into an organic molecule

12

plateau

characteristic period in the action potential of the heart muscle cell, when the membrane potential is relatively constant

13

pneumothorax

collapse of a lung due to a puncture that penetrates the pleural cavity

14

Poiseuille's law

equation describing the laminar flow of fluids in rigid tubes as the function of pressure difference, tube diameter and length, and viscosity

15

polar

a polar molecule has a net dipole as a result of the opposing charges from polar bonds arranged asymmetrically

16

polypnea

rapid breathing

17

polysaccharides

macromolecules built up by simple sugar molecules

18

postganglionic neuron

autonomic neuron located in a peripheral ganglion that receives input from preganglionic neurons and synapses onto target organs

19

posttetanic potentiation

increased efficacy of synaptic transmission following presynaptic stimulation at a high frequency

20

precapillary sphincter

muscular ring at the origin of capillaries regulating blood flow in the capillary

21

preganglionic neuron

autonomic neuron located in the central nervous system that sends an axon into the periphery and synapses onto postganglionic cells

22

pressor area (center)

area in the dorsolateral reticular formation of the medulla; its excitation increase heart rate, constrict vessels, thus increases blood pressure through sympathetic fibers

23

primary structure of proteins

sequence of amino acids building up the molecule

24

projection neuron

nerve cell with a long axon running to remote targets

25

protein

macromolecule built up by amino acids

26

protein kinase

enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a protein

27

pseudounipolar neuron

nerve cell with one process that branches near to the soma forming two equivalent neurits

28

pulse volume

volume of blood pumped by the heart into the circulation during one systole

29

purines

compounds based on a two-ring structure with 5 C and 4 N atoms; adenine and guanine

30

Purkinje fibers

specialized conducting fibers in the heart that can conduct cardiac APs more quickly and efficiently than any other cells in the heart

31

pyrimidines

compounds based on a ring containing 4 C and 2 N atoms; uracil, thymidine and cytosine