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Flashcards in Abbreviations Deck (106)
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1

FOI

Freedom of Interference

2

FIT

Failure in Time (Hardware)
Depending on the type of component or system being evaluated, the FIT rate is one of the most commonly used metrics when calculating the level of reliability. It represents the failure rate (λ) per billion hours.

3

RTE>

Run Time Environment

4

FMEA

Fehler Möglichkeit Ereignis Analyse:
Is a team-oriented method to minimize risk during the development and is intended to promote the interdisciplinary cooperation of the involved parties at an early phase of the development cycle. It is designed to identify failures and measures to avoid them. In the nomenclature of the ISO 26262, the FMEA is an "inductive analysis method" (bottom up) for the "system design analysis"

5

ASIL

Automotive Safety Integrity Level

6

IF Set

Interface Set

7

SIL

Software in the Loop

8

PIE

Pre Integration Environment

9

SYS

System:
Final integration step of the zFAS software. Contains a zFAS platform and all SW components integrated.

10

EMS

Electronic Manufacturing Services

11

RTOS

Real Time Operating System:
Is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffering delays. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time. They either are event driven or time sharing. Event driven systems switch between tasks based on their priorities while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock interrupts.

12

GPU

Graphics Processing Unit

13

FPGA

Field Programmable Gate Array
Is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing - hence "field programmable". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an applications-specific integrated circuit (ASIC).
FPGAs contain an array of programmable logic blocks, and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together", like many logic gates that can be inter-wired in different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions, or merely simple logic gates like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, logic blocks also include memory elements, which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory.

14

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers:
The organisation had been founded in 1905 as Society of Automobile. Originally it supported standardisation in the automotive industry, to ensure the exchange of knowledge and ideas.

15

UTSP

Unshielded Twisted Single Pair:

Often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair color code, made with copper wires measured at 22 or 24 and an insulator such as polyethylene or FEP and the total package covered in a polyethylene jacket.

16

AVB

Audio Video Bridging

17

TSN

Time Sensitive Networking:

18

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network:

19

QoS

Quality of Service:

20

Latency

The delay of the end-to-end transfer

21

Jitter (Latency)

The deviation of the latency from its median value

22

Package Loss Rate (Latency)

The probability that single IP-Packages are lost during transmission (or arrive too late in real-time services)

23

RSTP

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol:

24

BMCA

Best Master Clock Algorithm:
Allows a clock to automatically take over the duties of Grandmaster when the previous Grandmaster loses its GPS, gets disconnected due to a switch fault, or for whatever reason is unable to continue as Grandmaster.

25

SoC

System on a Chip:

26

MCAL

Microcontroller Abstraction Layer:
Is a software module that directly accesses on-chip MCU/SoC peripheral modules and external devices that are mapped to memory, and makes the upper software layer independent of the MCU/SoC. It is the driver layer defined in AUTOSAR for driving the peripheral units of a microcontroller.
https://www.renesas.com/en-us/solutions/automotive/technology/autosar/autosar-mcal.html

27

MCU

Microcontroller Unit:
Is basically a mini computer on a single integrated circuit which is dedicated to perform one task and execute on specific application. It contains memory, programmable input/output peripherals as well as a processor.
(Similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip or SoC - an SoC may include a microcontroller as one of its components.

28

OTA

Over The Air

29

HDM

Hardware Development Manual:
Describes the general principles and methodologies of work to be performed for the development of hardware items in the Electronics Development department

30

ADTF

Automotive Data and Time-Triggered Framework

31

EMC

Electro Magnetic Compatibility

32

eABC

Active Body Control System

33

TSN

Time Sensitive Networking

34

zFAS

zentrales Fahrerassistenzsystem

35

SCM

Safety Control Module

36

ASIC

Application-specific integrated circuit

37

HSI

HW-SW Interface:
The HSI specifies the hardware and software interactions in consistency with the technical safety concept, which includes hardware components that are controlled by software and support the software execution. ISO 26262 states the importance and essentiality of the HSI specification by highlighting its definition during the system design phase and its further refinement during HW and SW development phase. The HSI document is the last development artifact of the system development and the starting point for parallel development of HW and SW

38

DIA

Development Interface Agreement

39

E/E

Elektrisch/Elektronisch:
E/E is a system that consists of electrical and/or electronic elements including programmable electronic elements such as power supply, sensor or other input device, communication path, actuator or other output device

40

V&V

Varification and Validation:
For all life cycle activities during each life cycle process

41

PWM

Pulse Width Modulation

42

MCU

Micro Controller Unit

43

HSM

Hardward Security Module

44

POSIX

Portable Operating System Interface

45

SOME/IP

Scalable service-Oriented Middleware over IP

46

FUSI

Funktionale Sicherheit

47

VCU

Vehicle Control Unit:

48

NRE

Non Recurring Engineering Costs

49

DC-DC

DC-DC Converter:

50

QM

Quality Managed:
The level QM means that risk associated with a hazardous event is unreasonable and does therefore not require safety measures in accordance with ISO 26262

51

LVDS

Low Voltage Differential Signaling

52

EDR

Event Data Recorder

53

TAF

Teilautomatisiertes Fahrgerät

54

RAM

Random Access Memory

55

RSE

Rear Seat Entertainment

56

Fog Computing

Fogging / Fog Computing:
In a fog environment, the processing takes place in a data hub on a smart device, or in a smart router or gateway, thus reducing the amount of data sent to the cloud. It is important to note that fog networking complements - not replaces - cloud computing. Fogging allows for short-term analytics at the edge, and the cloud performs resource-intensive, longer-term analytics.

57

IGPT

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor:

58

PWM

Pulsweitenmodulation:
Ist eine Modulationsart, bei der eine technische Größe (z.B. elektrische Spannung) zwischen zwei Werten wechselt. Dabei wird bei konstanter Frequenz der Tastgrad eines Rechteckpulses moduliert, also die Breite der ihn bildenden Impulse.

59

Interface (PWM)

A shared boundary between two functional units defined by various characteristics pertaining to the functions, physical interconnections, signal exchanges, and other characteristics, as appropriate.

60

MOSFET

Metall-Oxid-Halbleiter-Feldeffekttransistor:
auch als IGFET bezeichnet, gehört zu den Feldeffekttransistoren mit isoliertem Gate. Die Ansteuerung eines MOSFETs erfolgt über eine Steuerspannung (Gate-Source-Spannung) bzw. Steuerpotential (Gate-Potential), mit ihr kann der Stromfluss von Drain nach Source beeinflusst werden.

61

Peripheriefunktion - Peripheriebausteine (MOSFET)

Teil eines Computers, welche die Funktionalität bieten, die nicht vom Prozessorkern selbst zur Verfügung gestellt wird, sondern von zusätzlicher Hardware (auf weiteren integrierten Schaltkreisen oder mit dem Prozessor auf dem gleichen Chip). Beispiele sind Schnittstellen-Bausteine, Zeitgeber oder Watchdog

62

Die

Englisch 'dies' oder 'dice' ist in der Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik die Bezeichnung eines einzelnen ungehäusten Stücks eines Halbleiter-Wafers. Ein solches 'Die' wird üblicherweise durch Sägen oder Brechen des fertig bearbeiteten Wafers in rechteckige Teile ('dicing') gewonnen

63

ICAS

In-Car Application Server

64

MEB

Modulare Elektrifiyierungsbaukasten:
Ist ein Baukastensystem für die Herstellung von Elektroautos, das VW derzeit entwickelt. Beim MEB werden in Zukunft die Anforderungen der Achsen, Antriebe, Radstände und Gewichtsverhältnisse hinsichtlich des e-mobility Trends ausgerichtet.

65

MQB

Modularer Querbaukasten:
Ist ein Baukastensystem für Autos mit quer einbauten Motoren und Getrieben, das bei der VW AG 2012 mit dem Audi A3 8V und dem Golf VII eingeführt wurde. Der MQB ersetzt als technisches Fundament konzernweit die bisherigen Plattformen, die sich im Fahrzeugaufbau (Seitenteile, Dach, Türen und Deckel; auch Fahrzeughut genannt) und bei den Systemteilen (Bauteile, die Plattform und Fahrzeugaufbau verbinden) unterscheiden.

66

MMU

Memory Management Unit:
ist die Hardwarekomponente eines Computers, die den Zugriff auf den Arbeitsspeicher verwaltet.

67

SoW

Statement of Work:
Is a document routinely employed in the field of project management. It defines project-specific activities, deliverables and timelines for a vendor providing services to the client. The SOW typically also includes detailed requirements and pricing, with standard regulatory and governance terms and conditions. It is often an important accompaniment to a Master Services Agreement or Request for Proposal (RFP).

68

PPAP

Production Part Approval Process:
Das Produktionsteil-Abnahmeverfahren ist ein Verfahren der ISO/TS 16949, bei dem Serienteile bemustert werden. Dabei geht es vor allem um die Qualität der gelieferten Teile, das bedeutet, dass die Teile aus den Serienwerkzeugen bzw. Serienprozessen den Zeichnungen entsprechen müssen.

69

µm

Mircrometre: The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria,[1] and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.[2] The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm. The first and longest human chromosome is approximately 10μm in length.

70

ISO

International Organisation for Standardization

71

OSI

Open System Interconnection

72

DS

Draft Standard

73

LLC

Logical Link Control

74

MAC

Medium Access Control

75

PLS

Physical Layer Signalling

76

MDI

Medium Dependent Interface

77

PMS

Physical Medium Specification

78

PMA

Physical Medium Attachement

79

ISO 11898

CAN (Controller Area Network)
In 1993, the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) released the CAN standard ISO 11898.
A controller area network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow micro-controllers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer. It is a message-based protocol, designed originally for multiplex electrical wiring within automobiles to save on copper, but is also used in many other contexts.

80

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check:
This protects the useful data in a CAN data transmission by appending a checksum to the useful data, which is evaluated by the receiver by applying the CRC algorithm.

81

CSMA/CA Method

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance:
Ensures that CAN nodes wishing to send do not access the CAN bus until it is available. It also ensures that the CAN node with the highest priority data frame prevails.

82

Bit Stuffing (CAN)

Bit Stuffing is the insertion of non information bits into data. A bit of opposite polarity is inserted after five consecutive bits of the same polarity and is used to ensure the sychronisation of all nodes

83

SCI

Serial Communication Interface:
Serial data transmission in a LIN network is handled over the microcontrollers SCI due to the lack of a communication controller, which is performed by so-called SCI frames.

84

FlexRay

FlexRay was primarily developed to provide extremely reliable and safe data transmission in safety-critical automotive applications. Data protection is provided by both physical and logical measures.

85

DoIP

DoIP: Diagnostics over IP

86

NRE

Non Recurring Engineering:
Refers to the one-time cost to research, design, develop and test a new product or product enhancement.
When budgeting for a new product, NRE must be considered to analyse if a new product will be profitable.
Even though a company will pay for NRE on a project only once, NRE costs can be prohibitively high and the product will need to sell well enough to produce a return on the initial investment. NRE is unlike production costs, which must be paid constantly to maintain production of a product. Rather it is a form of fixed cost in economics terms. Once a system is designed, any number of units can be manufactured without increasing NRE cost.

87

QoS

Quality of Service

88

ROM

Rough Order of Magnitude

89

MTTF

MTTF
Mean Time to Failure or θ is another standard industry value which provides the average time to failure of Non-repairable items such as light bulbs and diodes or unserviceable systems such as satellites or other unmanned space craft. For items with long life expectancies, it is often more useful to report MTTF in years than hours.

90

MTBF

MTBF
Mean Time Between Failures is used to describe Repairable Items such as compressors and aircraft. MTBF uses MTTF as one factor and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) as the other to capture the complete break-down and repair cycle. The primary purpose of MTBF is to identify appropriate preventive maintenance schedules to avoid, perhaps indefinitely, catastrophic failures due to predictable piece part wear-out. As a rule of thumb, component reliability centers around MTTF since most components cannot be repaired.

91

ISO 15504

SPICE / ASPICE
Automotive - Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination is an international standard of ISO used to carry out assessments of company processes relating to the development of software.
The core elements of this norm:
The improvement of processes within the organisation (i.e. the transformation of input products to output products)
and
The determination of the process capability

92

ASIC

ASIC
Commonly used in automotive computers to control the functions of the vehicle, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits are chips designed for a particular applications (as opposed to the integrated circuits that control functions such as RAM in a PC). ASICs are built by connecting existing circuit building blocks in new ways. Since the building blocks already exist in a library, it is much easier to produce a new ASIC than to design a new chip from scratch.

93

PCB

PCB
A Printed Circuit Board mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it.

94

ICT (Testing)

ICT (Testing)
In-Circuit Test is an example of white box testing where an electrical probe tests a populated printed circuit board (PCB), checking for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and other basic quantities which will show whether the assembly was correctly fabricated.

95

EOL (Testing)

EOL (Testing)
End-of-Line testers are responsible for testing the overall functionality of the product during the manufacturing process. Under the hard conditions of the manufacturing environment, test systems must simulate all the relevant conditions, whilst measuring the response of the equipment being tested.

96

CAN-FD

CAN-FD
Denotes CAN with Flexible Data-Rate, which is an extension of the original CAN bus protocol. Developed in 2011 and released in 2012 by Bosch, it was originally created in response to the requests of automakers for more accurate, "real-time" data. Just like with classic CAN, this protocol is designed to record and transmit data, including errors, between devises and microcontrollers without the use of a central, "host" computer.
CAN FD is primarily designed to meet the needs of automakers, however, the pervasiveness of classic CAN indicates the inclusion of this improved protocol across a variety of applications, including defense, industrial automation, autonomous devices, underwater vehicles and medical equipment.

97

SiP

SiP
System In Package or system-in-a-package is a number of integrated circuits enclosed in a single module (package). The SiP performs all or most of the functions of an electronic system, and is typically used inside a mobile phone, digital music player, etc. Dies containing integrated circuits may be stacked vertically on a substrate. They are internally connected by fine wires that are bonded to the package. Alternatively, with a flip chip technology, solder bumps are used to join stacked chips together.
SiP technology is primarily being driven by market trends in wearables, mobile devices and IoT. As the IoT becomes more of a reality and less of a vision, there is innovation going on at the system on a chip and SiP level so that MEMS sensors can be integrated on a separate die and control the connectivity.

98

EEPROM

EEPROM
Stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
EEPROMs are organized as arrays of floating-gate transistors. EEPROMs can be programmed and erased in-circuit, by applying special programming signals.

99

PCB

PCB
Printed Circuit Board - mechanically supports and electronically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of non-conductive substrate.

100

PPAP

PPAP
Production Part Approval Process is used in the automotive supply chain for establishing confidence in suppliers and their production processes.

The purpose of any PPAP is,
- To ensure that a supplier can meet the manufacturability and quality requirements of the parts supplied to the customer.
- To provide evidence that the customer engineering design record and specification requirements are clearly understood and fulfilled by the supplier.
- To demonstrate that the established manufacturing process has the potential to produce the part that consistently meets all requirements during the actual production run at the quoted production rate.

Actual measurements are taken of the parts produced and are used to complete the various test sheets of PPAP.
The PPAP process is designed to demonstrate that a supplier has developed their design and production process to meet the client's requirements, minimizing the risk of failure by effective use of APQP. Requests for part approval must therefore be supported in official PPAP format and with documented results when needed.

101

BOM

BOM
Bill of Materials

102

BIST

BIST
Built in Self Test Framework for the execution of HW tests ( start-up, periodical and shut-down inc. error reporting)

103

FCA

FCA
A terms of delivery category meaning Free Carrier. Introduced as per international commercial terms in 2010, FCA is used for both air and sea transactions.
It essentially means that the export cleared goods are delivered by the seller to the carrier at the said named and defined location mentioned in the contract. The cost for transportation is included in the price set by the seller, and the risk of loss is assumed by the seller until the goods are delivered to the carrier, at which point the buyer assumes all responsibility.

104

EXW

EXW
A terms of delivery category meaning Ex-Works by which a seller makes the product available at a designated location, and the buyer incurs transport costs.

105

DDP

DDP
A terms of delivery category meaning Delivered Duty Paid, which indicates that the seller assumes all of the responsibility, risk and costs associated with transporting goods until they are received or transferred by the buyer. This includes paying for shipping costs, export and import duties, insurance and any other expenses incurred during shipping to an agreed-upon location in the buyer's country.

106

BSP

BSP
In embedded systems, a Board Support Package is the layer of software containing hardware-specific drivers and other routines that allow a particular operating system (traditionally a real-time operating system, or RTOS) to function in a particular hardware environment (a computer or CPU card), integrated with the RTOS itself. Third-party hardware developers who wish to support a particular RTOS must create a BSP that allows that RTOS to run on their platform. In most cases the RTOS image and license, the BSP containing it, and the hardware are bundled together by the hardware vendor.