Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Health Assessment > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (155)
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1

Presenting GI complaints

 

  • Abdominal pain, acute and chronic
  • Indigestion, nausea, vomiting including blood,  loss of appetite, early satiety
  • Dysphagia +/or odynophagia
  • Change in bowel pattern
  • Diarrhea, constipation
  • Jaundice
  • Weight loss (unintentional)
     

2

Abdomen: quadrants

3

9 sections of abdomen

4

Location of spleen

lateral to and behind stomach, just above left kidney in left midaxillary line.

upper margin rests against dome of diaphragm. 

 

5

Which ribs protect most of the spleen?

9, 10, 11

6

Presenting urinary and renal sx

  • Suprapubic pain
  • Dysuria, urgency, or frequency
  • Hesitancy, decreased stream
  • Polyuria or nocturia
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Hematuria
  • Kidney or flank pain
  • Ureteral colic

7

Types of abdominal pain

  • Visceral Pain: organ pain, often in hollow organs – intestine, biliary tree. Also liver. Dull & achy, difficult to localize
  • Parietal Pain: often caused by peritoneum. Often sharp, can be localized and very severe. Aggravated by movement/coughing
  • Referred Pain: occurs elsewhere - sites innervated at approximately same spinal levels as disordered structures. Radiating. Superficial or deep but usually localized. E.g. shoulder in cholecystitis

8

Types of visceral pain

9

Visceral pain: RUQ/epigastric

biliary tree & liver

10

Visceral pain: epigastric

stomach, duodenum, pancreas

11

Visceral pain: periumbilical

small intestine, appendix, proximal colon

12

Visceral pain: suprapubic or sacral

rectum

13

Visceral pain: hypogastric

colon, bladder, uterus 

colonic pain may be more diffuse than illustrated

14

Referred pain: duodenal or pancreatic origin

to the back

15

Referred pain: biliary tree

right shoulder or right posterior chest

16

Referred pain: plueurisy or inferior wall MI

epigastric area

17

Possible movement of pain from appendicitis, visceral & parietal

visceral periumbilical pain in early acute appendicitis from distention of inflamed appendix

Gradually changes to parietal pain in RLQ from inflammation of adjacent parietal peritoneum

18

Doubling over w/cramping colicky pain indicates...

renal stone

19

Sudden knifelike epigastric pain indicates...

gallstone pancreatitis

20

Epigastric pain commonly... 

gastritis and GERD

21

RUQ pain and upper abdominal pain, think first of....

cholecystitis 

22

Dyspepsia

chronic or recurrent discomfort or pain centered in upper abdomen

23

Discomfort

subjective negative feeling that is nonpainful, can include bloating, nausea, upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, etc.

24

Do bloating, nausea, or belching alone meet the criteria for dyspepsia?

No. Can be seen w/other d/os.

E.g., bloating w/IBD and belching w/aerophagia (swallowing air)

25

Functional / nonulcer dyspepsia: what is it?

3 month history of nonspecific upper abdominal discomfort or nausea not attibutable to structural abnormalities or PUD. Sx usually recurring and present >6mths

26

dyspepsia: causes

multifactorial, including delayed gastric emptying, gastritis from H. pylori, PUD, psychosocial factors

27

Diagnostic criteria for GERD 

  • chronic abdominal discomfort/pain w/primary symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, regurgitation >once/week

OR

  • mucosal damage on endoscopy

28

Risk factors GERD

  • reduced salivary flow - prolongs acid clearance by damping action of bicarbonate buffer
  • delayed gastric emptying
  • selected medications
  • hiatal hernia

29

Foods and positions that aggravate heartburn

etoh, chocolate, citrus, coffee, onions, peppermint

bending over, exercising, lifting, lying supine

30

atypical respiratory symptoms of GERD

cough, wheezing, aspiration pneumonia

pharyngeal symptoms: hoarseness, chronic sore throat, laryngitis