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Flashcards in Oncology Deck (68)
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1

Carcinoma 

begins in skin or tissue that line or cover internal organs.

2

Sarcoma

– begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, connective or supportive tissue.

3

Leukemia

– starts in blood-forming tissue such as bone marrow (large number of abnormal cells produced and enter the bloodstream)

4

Lymphoma and myeloma

– begin in the cells of the immune system

5

Ca of Central nervous system 

– begin in tissues of brain and spinal cord 

6

Which cancers could be prevented by vaccination, behavioral changes, and antibiotics? 

Cancers related to Hepatitis B, HPV, HIV, H. pylori

7

Screening prostate ca

ACS: PSA at age 50, 45 if AA, consider risks/benefits (false +s, too much intervention)

8

screening lung cancer

Lung cancer – low-dose CT scan (high risk individuals) more and more evidence, now paid for by insurance. 

9

4 oncologic emergencies

spinal cord compression, SVC syndrome, hypercalcemia, tumor lysis syndrome

10

Spinal cord compression

– due to metastatic disease, back pain early, neurologic deficit of legs late sign. MRI needed. Treated with corticosteroids, RT, surgery, treat underlying malignancy.

11

Superior vena cava syndrome: cause

  • caused by mediastinal tumors, venous catheters, clots (basically impaired blood flow).

12

SVC syndrome: symptoms

Symptoms neck ,facial, periocular swelling, dyspnea, cough, head pressure, hoarseness, nasal congestion, syncope. 


facial swelling may subside after up all day

13

SVC syndrome: Dx 

CT scan needed, CXR may be beneficial. US for clots (gold standard).

14

SVC syndrome: Tx

Chemo, pericardial window or stripping. 
HOB elevated. Lasix, steroids, chemo or RT, warfarin for clot.

15

Hypercalcemia: cause

– bone mets, parathyroid hormone related protein production, calcitroil excretion.

16

hypercalcemia Sx

Symptoms confusion, lethargy, sleepiness.

17

hypercalcemia: dx & Tx

Lab tests for calcium and electrolytes.

IV hydration (flush system) and bisphosphonates treatment.

18

Tumor lysis syndrome

– rapid tumor cell destruction from chemo, multiple electrolyte abnormalities.

19

Tumor Lysis Syndrome: symptoms

Nausea, weakness, myalgia, dark urine, arrhythmias.

20

Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Dx & Tx

  • Test electrolytes and uric acid.
  • Prevent by hydration, allopurinal, zyloprim.
  • Treat imbalances, acidosis.

21

alopecia: cause

caused by chemo 7 – 10 days after treatment (hair thinning) but really kicks in 3-4 weeks post. 

Some people don’t lose – after 1st month usually indicates how much

22

alopecia mgmt

  • Cut hair short, shave head. Wigs/scarves.
  • Can write prescription for cranial prosthetic.
  • Get wig before so can match to current hair.

 

23

Bone marrow suppression leads to...

neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia

24

neutropenia: when and Tx

nadir at 7-10 days after treatment.

Give GCSF and/or dose reduce

25

Anemia: when & Tx

  • several weeks after treatment start.
  • R/o other causes (bleeding, hemolysis, nutritional deficiency).
  • Transfuse if necessary. Give Epogen, Aranesp per guidelines.
    • Be aware of religious beliefs.
    • Transfusion more common for solid tumor pts

26

Nausea/vomiting: when and Tx

  • Differs with emetogenic potential of the therapy.
  • Cisplatin tends to be most emetogenic but we have good treatments – let ppl know they shouldn’t be suffering overly

27

Diarrhea: why & Tx

  • may be side effect of treatment or disease.
  • Obtain stool bacterial culture (C. diff),
    • if positive Flagyl (metronidazole),
    • if negative antimotility agent Imodium or Lomotil.
  • Manage fluids, skin breakdown

28

Nutrition effects

  • loss of appetite, inability to eat secondary to side effects from chemo i.e. metallic taste in mouth, loss of taste.

29

Body image effects

Body Image Disturbance – from surgery, weight gain from steroid treatment.

30

at what ANC can bacteria naturally present in the mouth or digestive tract can cause infection

ANC < 500