Flashcards in Abdominal Wall and Inguinal Canal Deck (53):
What is the abdominal cavity bounded, superiorly and inferiorly, by?
Superiorly by thoracic diaphragm
Inferiorly by the pelvic brim and superior pelvic aperture
What is the abdominal cavity continuous with inferiorly?
Inferiorly with the pelvic cavity
What does the pelvic brim divide?
The pelvic brim divides the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity
What are the three types of muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
External obliquus abdominis
Internal obliquus abdominis
What is the role of parietal peritoneum?
The parietal peritoneum protects and houses the abdominal cavity and lines organs such as the small intestines
What is the innermost layer of the abdominal wall?
the parietal peritoneum
What is the outermost layer of the abdominal wall?
the skin and fascia
What are the four main skeletal structures of the abdominal wall?
Thoracic cage (costal margins)
Hip bones (os coxa)
Pelvic Brim/ Superior Pelvic Aperture of lesser or true pelvis
What are the boundaries of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
What is the Inguinal Ligament?
The inguinal ligament is a fibrous band extending from the anterior superior iliac spine to the public tubercle
What muscles is the rectus sheath made up of?
Anterior muscles: rectus abdominis
External Obliquus abdominis
Internal Obliquus abdominis
What are the tendinous intersections?
The tendinous intersections are the three fibrous bands that cross the rectus abdominis muscle
Where does the superficial inguinal ring sit in relation to the public tubercle?
The superficial inguinal ring sits just above the public tubercle
What are the four main supportive structures of the abdominal wall?
What three things cover the spermatic cord?
Internal spermatic fascia
External spermatic fascia
What is the inguinal canal?
- Short passage that extends inferiorly and medially, through the inferior part of the abdominal wall
- It is superior and parallel to the inguinal ligament.
- It acts as a pathway by which structures can pass from the abdominal wall to the external genitalia.
- A common site of herniation.
What is the transversalis fascia?
The transversalis fascia is a thin layer of fascia that lines the transversus abdominis muscle.
The extraperitoneal fat is deep to it
The opening in the transversalis fascia is the deep inguinal ring.
What is the deep inguinal ring?
The deep inguinal ring is an opening in the transversalis fascia that is situated near the midpoint of the inguinal ligament
What is the females' equivalent of the spermatic cord?
The round ligament of uterus
Inguinal canal of male?
4 to 5cm long (longer and wider than female)
Extends through anterolateral muscles of abdominal wall
Contains a spermatic cord
What is the superficial inguinal ring?
inferomedial opening within the aponeurosis of the external obliquus abdominus
Spermatic cord passes through
What are the contents of the female inguinal canal?
Round ligament of uterus
blood vessels and nerves
What is an inguinal hernia?
Protrusion or passage of a peritoneal sac through a weakened part of abdominal wall of inguinal region
direct (through posterior wall of inguinal canal)
indirect (through deep inguinal ring)
Indirect Inguinal Hernia?
bowel (usually small intestine, rarely large intestine) pass through the deep inguinal ring
traverses entire inguinal canal
exits through the superficial inguinal ring inside the spermatic cord
commonly enters scrotum
Why are indirect inguinal hernias more common in males compared to females?
The inguinal canal is wider in males and therefore more likely.
Direct inguinal hernias?
Bowel passes through the peritoneum and transversalis fascia in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal
only traverses medial 1/3 of inguinal canal
rarely enters scrotum
What are the 4 main muscles of the posterior abdominal wall?
What two muscle join to form the iliopsoas?
Psoas Major and Iliacus
Extends from lower ribs to iliac crest
What are the posterior abdominal wall muscles important for?
They are important for movement and protection of organs as there are no skeletal structures
Surface Anatomy of the Abdomen?
Tendinous intersection of rectus abdominis
Anterior superior iliac spine
Depression that is inferior to the xiphoid proces (point of triangle when ripped)
Bilateral vertical curved line in the anterior abdominal wall where the layers of the rectus sheath fuse lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle and medial to the oblique muscles
The depression along the midline between the xiphisternal joint and the pubic symphysis
The depression coursing the inguinal ligament
What and where are Tendinous intersections of rectus abdominis?
The rectus abdominis is crossed by three fibrous bands called the tendinous intersections:
-midway between the umbilicus and xiphoid process
What are the four anatomical planes of the abdominal cavity
What are the landmarks through which the transtubercular plane passes?
Transverse plane coursing through the left and right iliac tubercle of the iliac crest
What are the landmarks through which the transpyloric plane passes?
The transpyloric plane is the midpoint between the superior aspect of the manubrium and the pubic tubercle
What are the 9 regions of the abdominal cavity?
Left and Right hypochondria
Left and Right lumbar
Left and Right Inguinal
What are the four quadrants of the abdominal cavity?
Right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
What are the 2 planes that make up the four quadrants?
The median plane and the transumbilical plane (plane that passes through the the umbilicus)
What does the transpyloric plane pass through?
The transpyloric plane is an imaginary horizontal plane around L1, it is determined by drawing a line midway between the jugular notch of the manubrium and the pubic symphysis
What does the subcostal plane pass through?
The subcostal plane is an imaginary horizontal plane that connects the inferior most point of the costal margins along the inferior borders of the 10th costal cartilages
What does the transtubercular plane pass through?
The transtubercular pass is an imaginary horizontal plane which passes through the iliac tubercles of the iliac crest and body of L5
What do the midclavicular lines pass through?
Each midclavicular line is verticle and extends inferiorly from the midpoint of the clavicle to the mid-inguinal point (which is midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic symphysis)
What are the superior abdominal regions?
right hypochondriac, epigastric and left hypochondriac
What are the middle abdominal regions?
Right lumbar/lateral, umbilical and left lumbar/lateral
What are the inferior abdominal regions?
Right iliac/inguinal, hypogastric/pubic and left iliac/inguinal
What are the major structures contained in the right upper quadrant?
Right lobe of live
part of pylorus
What are the major structures contained in the left upper quadrant?
left lobe of liver
What are the major structures contained in the right lower quadrant?
right spermatic duct/ right ovary