Flashcards in Supracolic Organs Deck (59):
Define Supracolic Organs?
Supracolic organs are the organs that lie superior to the transverse mesencolon
What is the main supply of blood to the supracolic organs?
the coeliac trunk and its branches
What organs are supplied by the coeliac trunk?
What are the first three branches of the coeliac trunk?
1. common hepatic artery
2. splenic artery
3. left gastric artery
What are the branches of the common hepatic artery?
1. Hepatic artery proper (branches off into the left and right hepatic arteries)
2. Gastroduodenal artery (branches into the right gastroepiploic artery)
3. Right gastric artery (courses along the right side of the lesser curvature of the stomach and forms an anastomoses with the left gastric artery)
What do the right and left hepatic arteries supply and what did they branch off of?
supply the liver
they branch off of the hepatic artery proper (from the common hepatic artery)
What does the right gastroepiploic artery supply and what did it branch off of?
It courses along the right half of the greater curvature of the stomach and it forms an anastomoses with the left gastroepiploic
It branches off of the gastroduodenal artery (from the common hepatic artery)
What are the branches of the splenic artery?
1. left gastroepiploic artery (collateral branch off splenic artery)
2. the rest of the splenic artery enters the hilum of the spleen
What does the left gastroepiploic artery supply and what did it branch off of?
It courses along the left half of the greater curvature of the stomach and it forms an anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic
It branches off of the splenic artery
What is the left gastric artery?
The smallest of the coeliac branches
Courses along the left half of the lesser curvature of the stomach and it forms and anastomoses with the right gastric artery within the lesser curvature of the stomach.
What is the system that drains the supracolic organs?
tributaries from the portal vein except the liver
What are tributaries?
Tributaries are the equivalent of collateral branches that drain into a larger vessel.
Why does the liver have a dual blood supply?
1. the liver requires its own supply of nutrients to survive
2. the liver's main role is to detoxify/ filter blood
What abdominal regions is the liver located in?
right lobe: right hypochondriac region
right and left lobe: epigastric region
left lobe: left hypochondriac region
What are the anatomical lobes of the liver?
right lobe: caudate lobe, quadrate lobe
What are the surfaces of the liver?
What is the Diaphragmatic surface of the liver?
smooth and dome shaped
subdivided into anterior, right, superior and posterior regions
What is the bare area and where is it found?
The bare area does not contain peritoneum and is located on a portion of the superior and posterior surfaces of the diaphragmatic surface
What is the falciform ligament of the liver?
it extends from the anterior surface of the liver to the thoracic diaphragm, anterior abdominal wall (anterior wall of peritoneal cavity) and to the umbilicus
Holds the liver in place
What organs come into contact with the visceral surface of the liver?
inferior vena cava
right colic flexure
What is the Porta Hepatis and what does it contain?
The porta hepatis is the hilum of the liver
It is the entry way for:
hepatic lymph nodes
What is the hepatic pedicle?
The hepatic pedicle is the root of the liver (fibrous cord) that contains all the structures that enter and leave the liver at the porta hepatis.
What structures are contained in the hepatic pedicle?
common hepatic duct
supraduodenal part of the common bile duct
portion of cystic artery and cystic duct
hepatic artery proper and its terminal branches
hepatic lymph nodes
What are the hepatic veins and where do they drain into?
right, middle and left hepatic veins;
these veins drain into the inferior vena cava
What are the three parts to the common bile duct?
What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla?
the confluence of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct prior to the greater duodenal papilla
What two ducts join to form the common bile duct?
the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct
What two ducts join to form the common hepatic duct?
the left and right hepatic ducts
Describe the duct that attaches to the neck of the gallbladder?
the cystic duct: spiral valve of cystic duct
(contains lots of valves/fold to slow down the flow of bile)
What are the three regions of the gallbladder?
fundus (top of balloon)
What is the biliary system mainly responsible for?
Producing bile to break down fat
Which abdominal regions is the stomach located, and which planes pass through it?
The stomach is located primarily in the epigastric region, but also in the left hypochondriac
It passes through the transpyloric, left midclavicular and median planes
What are the four main regions of the stomach?
cardia (opening of the oesophagus into the stomach)
fundus (touches the diaphragm)
pyloric antrum, canal and sphincter
What is the angular incisure and where is it located?
the angular incisure is a depression that marks the start of the pyloric region (divides the body and the pyloric region)
it is located on the lesser curvature of the stomach
What are the 4 different variation in the shape and position of the stomach and their percentage of occurrence?
hypersthenic - 5%
sthenic - 48%
hyposthenic - 35%
asthenic - 12%
Results in a variation in the level of angular incisure
What does hypersthenic mean?
5% - massive build, broad and deep throax; high diaphragm and high gallbladder and stomach
What does sthenic mean?
48% - athletic type; relatively heavy with large bones
What does hyposthenic mean?
35% - slender and light weight; stomach and gallbladder high in abdomen
What does asthenic mean?
12% - extremely slender with light build; shallow thorax and low gallbladder and stomach position in abdomen
What are the posterior relations of the stomach?
body and tail of pancreas
What are the anterior relations of the stomach?
left lobe of liver
anterior abdominal wall
How long is the duodenum compared to the entire small intestines?
the duodenum makes up the first 15 - 20cm of a 3m long small intestines
What is the duodenojejunal flexure?
This is a flexure that marks the start of the jejunal
What are the four parts of the duodenum?
superior part (L1)
descending part (L1-L3)
horizontal part (L3)
ascending part (L2)
What is the duodenum cap/bulb/ampulla?
proximal 2cm of the first part of duodenum
cone-shaped and contains no plicae circulares
intraperitoneal organ (i.e. has mesentry)
What are the two junctions of the duodenum?
What is the blood supply to the liver?
R hepatic artery to cystic artery
L hepatic artery to middle hepatic artery
What is the blood supply to the stomach?
R & L gastric arteries (lesser curvature) (from hepatic artery proper)
R & L gastroepiploic arteries (greater curvature) (from gastroduodenal artery)
What is the blood supply to the pancreas?
superior mesenteric artery'
What is the blood supply to the spleen?
What are 2 variations in the coeliac artery and its branches?
1. instead of the splenic artery branching off the coeliac trunk, it is a collateral branch off the superior mesenteric artery
2. the ceoliac trunk and the superior mesenteric share a common origin
What are the vertebral levels that the pancreas passes through?
L1 to L3
What two organs does the pancreas extend between?
duodenum and spleen
What is the uncinate process?
the hook in the pancreas
What are the anterior relations of the pancreas?
What are the posterior relations of the pancreas?
superior mesenteric artery and vein
inferior mesenteric vein
inferior vena cava and aorta
left psoas major
left suprarenal gland and left kidney
What are the surfaces of the spleen?
Between what ribs is the spleen located?
9th to 11th rib (posterior)