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Regional and Sectional Anatomy > Supracolic Organs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Supracolic Organs Deck (59):
1

Define Supracolic Organs?

Supracolic organs are the organs that lie superior to the transverse mesencolon

2

What is the main supply of blood to the supracolic organs?

the coeliac trunk and its branches

3

What organs are supplied by the coeliac trunk?

liver
gallbladder
biliary ducts
stomach
duodenum
pancreas
spleen

4

What are the first three branches of the coeliac trunk?

1. common hepatic artery
2. splenic artery
3. left gastric artery

5

What are the branches of the common hepatic artery?

1. Hepatic artery proper (branches off into the left and right hepatic arteries)
2. Gastroduodenal artery (branches into the right gastroepiploic artery)
3. Right gastric artery (courses along the right side of the lesser curvature of the stomach and forms an anastomoses with the left gastric artery)

6

What do the right and left hepatic arteries supply and what did they branch off of?

supply the liver
they branch off of the hepatic artery proper (from the common hepatic artery)

7

What does the right gastroepiploic artery supply and what did it branch off of?

It courses along the right half of the greater curvature of the stomach and it forms an anastomoses with the left gastroepiploic
It branches off of the gastroduodenal artery (from the common hepatic artery)

8

What are the branches of the splenic artery?

1. left gastroepiploic artery (collateral branch off splenic artery)
2. the rest of the splenic artery enters the hilum of the spleen

9

What does the left gastroepiploic artery supply and what did it branch off of?

It courses along the left half of the greater curvature of the stomach and it forms an anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic
It branches off of the splenic artery

10

What is the left gastric artery?

The smallest of the coeliac branches
Courses along the left half of the lesser curvature of the stomach and it forms and anastomoses with the right gastric artery within the lesser curvature of the stomach.

11

What is the system that drains the supracolic organs?

tributaries from the portal vein except the liver

12

What are tributaries?

Tributaries are the equivalent of collateral branches that drain into a larger vessel.

13

Why does the liver have a dual blood supply?

1. the liver requires its own supply of nutrients to survive
2. the liver's main role is to detoxify/ filter blood

14

What abdominal regions is the liver located in?

right lobe: right hypochondriac region
right and left lobe: epigastric region
left lobe: left hypochondriac region

15

What are the anatomical lobes of the liver?

right lobe: caudate lobe, quadrate lobe
left lobe

16

What are the surfaces of the liver?

Diaphragmatic surface
Visceral surface

17

What is the Diaphragmatic surface of the liver?

smooth and dome shaped
subdivided into anterior, right, superior and posterior regions
bare area

18

What is the bare area and where is it found?

The bare area does not contain peritoneum and is located on a portion of the superior and posterior surfaces of the diaphragmatic surface

19

What is the falciform ligament of the liver?

it extends from the anterior surface of the liver to the thoracic diaphragm, anterior abdominal wall (anterior wall of peritoneal cavity) and to the umbilicus
Holds the liver in place

20

What organs come into contact with the visceral surface of the liver?

inferior vena cava
gallbladder
stomach
doudenum
right colic flexure
right kidney

21

What is the Porta Hepatis and what does it contain?

The porta hepatis is the hilum of the liver
It is the entry way for:
hepatic arteries
portal veins
hepatic ducts
hepatic lymph nodes

22

What is the hepatic pedicle?

The hepatic pedicle is the root of the liver (fibrous cord) that contains all the structures that enter and leave the liver at the porta hepatis.

23

What structures are contained in the hepatic pedicle?

portal vein
common hepatic duct
supraduodenal part of the common bile duct
portion of cystic artery and cystic duct
hepatic artery proper and its terminal branches
hepatic lymph nodes

24

What are the hepatic veins and where do they drain into?

right, middle and left hepatic veins;
these veins drain into the inferior vena cava

25

What are the three parts to the common bile duct?

supraduodenal
retroduodenal
infroduodenal

26

What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla?

the confluence of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct prior to the greater duodenal papilla

27

What two ducts join to form the common bile duct?

the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct

28

What two ducts join to form the common hepatic duct?

the left and right hepatic ducts

29

Describe the duct that attaches to the neck of the gallbladder?

the cystic duct: spiral valve of cystic duct
(contains lots of valves/fold to slow down the flow of bile)

30

What are the three regions of the gallbladder?

fundus (top of balloon)
body
neck

31

What is the biliary system mainly responsible for?

Producing bile to break down fat

32

Which abdominal regions is the stomach located, and which planes pass through it?

The stomach is located primarily in the epigastric region, but also in the left hypochondriac
It passes through the transpyloric, left midclavicular and median planes

33

What are the four main regions of the stomach?

cardia (opening of the oesophagus into the stomach)
fundus (touches the diaphragm)
body
pyloric antrum, canal and sphincter

34

What is the angular incisure and where is it located?

the angular incisure is a depression that marks the start of the pyloric region (divides the body and the pyloric region)
it is located on the lesser curvature of the stomach

35

What are the 4 different variation in the shape and position of the stomach and their percentage of occurrence?

hypersthenic - 5%
sthenic - 48%
hyposthenic - 35%
asthenic - 12%
Results in a variation in the level of angular incisure

36

What does hypersthenic mean?

5% - massive build, broad and deep throax; high diaphragm and high gallbladder and stomach

37

What does sthenic mean?

48% - athletic type; relatively heavy with large bones

38

What does hyposthenic mean?

35% - slender and light weight; stomach and gallbladder high in abdomen

39

What does asthenic mean?

12% - extremely slender with light build; shallow thorax and low gallbladder and stomach position in abdomen

40

What are the posterior relations of the stomach?

body and tail of pancreas
transverse mesocolon

41

What are the anterior relations of the stomach?

left lobe of liver
thoracic diaphragm
anterior abdominal wall

42

How long is the duodenum compared to the entire small intestines?

the duodenum makes up the first 15 - 20cm of a 3m long small intestines

43

What is the duodenojejunal flexure?

This is a flexure that marks the start of the jejunal

44

What are the four parts of the duodenum?

superior part (L1)
descending part (L1-L3)
horizontal part (L3)
ascending part (L2)

45

What is the duodenum cap/bulb/ampulla?

proximal 2cm of the first part of duodenum
cone-shaped and contains no plicae circulares
contains rugae
intraperitoneal organ (i.e. has mesentry)

46

What are the two junctions of the duodenum?

gastroduodenal junction
duodenojejunal junction

47

What is the blood supply to the liver?

R hepatic artery to cystic artery
L hepatic artery to middle hepatic artery

48

What is the blood supply to the stomach?

R & L gastric arteries (lesser curvature) (from hepatic artery proper)
R & L gastroepiploic arteries (greater curvature) (from gastroduodenal artery)

49

What is the blood supply to the pancreas?

gastroduodenal artery
superior mesenteric artery'
splenic artery

50

What is the blood supply to the spleen?

splenic artery

51

What are 2 variations in the coeliac artery and its branches?

1. instead of the splenic artery branching off the coeliac trunk, it is a collateral branch off the superior mesenteric artery
2. the ceoliac trunk and the superior mesenteric share a common origin

52

What are the vertebral levels that the pancreas passes through?

L1 to L3

53

What two organs does the pancreas extend between?

duodenum and spleen

54

What is the uncinate process?

the hook in the pancreas

55

What are the anterior relations of the pancreas?

transverse mesocolon
stomach

56

What are the posterior relations of the pancreas?

hepatic pedicle
superior mesenteric artery and vein
splenic vein
inferior mesenteric vein
inferior vena cava and aorta
left psoas major
left suprarenal gland and left kidney

57

What are the surfaces of the spleen?

diaphragmatic surface
visceral surface

58

Between what ribs is the spleen located?

9th to 11th rib (posterior)

59

The tail of the pancreas is at what relation to the spleen?

the tail of the pancrease is a medial relation at the hilum of the spleen