Abnormalities of growth, differentiation and morphogenesis Flashcards Preview

EMS - Mechanisms of disease > Abnormalities of growth, differentiation and morphogenesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abnormalities of growth, differentiation and morphogenesis Deck (16):
1

Give an example of cells that cannot adapt and why.

Cerebral neurons
-Terminally differentiated
-Permanent cell population
-Highly specialised function
-Easily damaged by environmental change

2

Give an example of cells that are good at adapting.

Epithelial cells
-Labile cell population
-Active stem cell compartment
-Highly adaptive in number and function

3

Give an example of cells that don't need to adapt.

Fibroblasts
-Survive severe metabolic stress without harm
-eg absence of O2

4

What is hypertrophy?

Increase in the size of cells.
Increase in functional capacity.
Particularly seen in cardiac cells.

5

What is subcellular hypertrophy/hyperplasia?

Increase in size/number of cellular organelles.
Eg ER hypertrophy in barbiturate use -> increased metabolism of other drugs

6

What is hyperplasia?

Increase in number of cells caused by cell division
Possible in labile and stable cell populations

7

What are the possible physiological mechanisms behind hyperplasia?

Hormonal
Compensatory

8

What are the possible pathological mechanisms behind hyperplasia?

Excess hormones
Growth factors

9

What is gynecomastia?

Enlargement of the male breast due to hyperplasia of the glandular and stromal tissue in the breast. This can be physiological at puberty, related to drugs – either prescribed or recreational (anabolic steriods, oestrogen) or to pathology elsewhere such as cirrhosis of the liver.

10

What is atropy?

Reduction in size of organ or tissue by decrease in cell size and number

Physiological - embryogenesis, uterus after pregnancy or menopause

Pathological - localised or generalised

11

What are the features of pathological atrophy?

-Decreased workload (disuse atrophy)
-Loss of innervation (denervation atrophy)
-Diminished blood supply
-Inadequate nutrition (eg cachexia)
-Loss of endocrine stimulation
-Pressure

12

What are the possible mechanisms of atrophy?

-Reduction in volume of individual cells
-Death of individual cells

13

What is involution?

Physiological atrophy due to apoptosis.

14

What is metaplasia?

Transformation of one differentiated cell type into another
Transdifferentiation of stem cells
Better adaptation to new environment
Can affect epithelium and mesenchymal tissues
Physiological or pathological

15

Give examples of metaplastic tissues.

Pseudostratified ciliated bronchial epithlium -> sqaumous
Transitional epithelium of bladder -> sqamous
Fibrocollagenous tissue -> bone
Oesophageal sqaumous epithelium -> columnar (glandular) epithelium

16

What is dysplasia?

Earliest morphological manifestation of multistage process of neoplasia (hence irreversible)