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EMS - Mechanisms of disease > Acute inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute inflammation Deck (17):
1

What kind of bacteria usually cause acute inflammation?

Pyogenic - 'pus-forming'

2

What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?

Calor (heat)
Rubor (redness)
Dolor (pain)
Tumor (swelling).

3

What are the components of the acute inflammatory response?

Vascular reaction (dilatation)

Exudative reaction

Cellular reaction (migration of inflammatory cells).

4

What is the acute phase reaction?

Acute phase proteins (C-reactive etc) increase in concentration in response to acute inflammation.

5

Why is the measurement of C-reactive protein useful clinically?

It can be used as a marker of inflammation.

6

What my be used as a proxy marker of acute inflammation?

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

7

What are the mediated mechanisms behind the vascular reaction.

Histamine

Bradykinin

NO

Leukotrine B4

Complement components

8

What are the non-mediated causal agents of the vascular reaction?

Endothelial injury e.g. toxins, physical agents

9

What is the purpose of inflammatory exudate?

Protein rich (Igs, fibrinogen)

Dilution of noxious agents

Transport to lymph nodes

Supply of nutrients, O2

Spread of inflammatory mediators

Spread of antibodies

Spread of drugs

10

What is fibrinous inflammation?

Precipitated fibrin from the inflammatory exudate. Results in roughening of smooth surfaces.

11

What are the characteristics of the cellular reaction?

Accumulation of neutrophils, can form pus.

12

What is the purpose of fibrinous inflammation?

Serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue.

13

What are the features of neutrophils?

Produced in bone marrow

Commonest white cell in blood

Increase in acute inflammation

Motile, amoeboid, can move into tissues

Directional chemotaxis

Short lifespan (hours in tissues)

14

What are the oxygen-dependent functions of neutrophils?

Myeloperoxidase - H2O2

Cl-

O2-

OH-

15

What are the oxygen-independent functions of neutrophils?

Lysozyme

Lactoferrin

Cationic proteins

16

What are the steps in neutrophil chemotaxis?

Margination (chemotaxis)

Pavementing (rolling and adhesion)

Diapedesis (migration).

17

What are the plasma-derived mediators of acute inflammation?

Kinin system

Clotting pathway

Thrombolytic pathway

Complement