Flashcards in acid-base Deck (23):
how much does the concentration of H+ change every time the pH changes by 0.3
by a factor of 2
normal hydrogen concentration
increase in the plasma hydrogen concentration above normal, pH below 7.35
process which increases the plasma hydrogen concentration
a decrease in the plasma hydrogen concentration below normal pH above 7.45
process which decreases the plasma hydrogen concentration
which form of hydrogen is physiologically active?
only free hydrogen ions
what is the primary buffer in the blood?
what does the Ka of bicarb do for the body?
it links the concentration of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. this allows for bicarbonate to act as a perfect sponge, soaking up hydrogen when the concentration is high and releasing it when concentration is low.
what is the equation for acidity and what does that mean for pathology
Acidity = bicarbonate/carbon dioxide. this means that there are 2 independent variables that allow for 4 independent pathologies.
what are the four independent pathologies associated with acid-base
increase in bicarb: metabolic alkalosis
decrease in the bicarb: metabolic acidosis
increase in the CO2: respiratory acidosis
decrease in the CO2: respiratory alkalosis
what is compensation and how does it work>?
patients with acid-base disorders try to restore normal pH. in metabolic disorders the lung attempt to modify the PCO2. in respiratory disorders the kidneys modify the bicarb. this minimizes the changes in pH
what direction is compensation?
always in the same direction as the primary disorder. meaning if there is low bicarb then compensation will drive PCO2 downward. if there is low PCO2 then compensation will drive bicarb downward. vice versa
what is the disorder if all three components move in the same direction
all you actually need is the pH and the CO2. if they are opposite it is respiratory, if they are the same it is metabolic. always look at pH for the direction...
what is the winter formula
PCO2 = 1.5 X HCO2 + 8 +/- 2; this ill help for searching for a separate or overlapping disease, it lets you know if the compensation is appropriate.
if the PCO2 is above the predicted range?
then there is an additional respiratory acidosis.
what are the anions?
Chloride and bicarb.
what are the cations?
sodium and potassium
what is the anion gap?
sodium - (Cl + bicarb)
what is the normal anion gap?
what causes non anion gap acidosis
chloride intoxication, GI loss of bicarb, renal loss of bicarb