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POM unit 5 > acid-base > Flashcards

Flashcards in acid-base Deck (23):
1

how much does the concentration of H+ change every time the pH changes by 0.3

by a factor of 2

2

normal hydrogen concentration

40

3

normal pH

7.4

4

acidemia

increase in the plasma hydrogen concentration above normal, pH below 7.35

5

acidosis

process which increases the plasma hydrogen concentration

6

alkalemia

a decrease in the plasma hydrogen concentration below normal pH above 7.45

7

alkalosis

process which decreases the plasma hydrogen concentration

8

which form of hydrogen is physiologically active?

only free hydrogen ions

9

what is the primary buffer in the blood?

bicarbonate

10

what does the Ka of bicarb do for the body?

it links the concentration of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. this allows for bicarbonate to act as a perfect sponge, soaking up hydrogen when the concentration is high and releasing it when concentration is low.

11

what is the equation for acidity and what does that mean for pathology

Acidity = bicarbonate/carbon dioxide. this means that there are 2 independent variables that allow for 4 independent pathologies.

12

what are the four independent pathologies associated with acid-base

increase in bicarb: metabolic alkalosis
decrease in the bicarb: metabolic acidosis
increase in the CO2: respiratory acidosis
decrease in the CO2: respiratory alkalosis

13

what is compensation and how does it work>?

patients with acid-base disorders try to restore normal pH. in metabolic disorders the lung attempt to modify the PCO2. in respiratory disorders the kidneys modify the bicarb. this minimizes the changes in pH

14

what direction is compensation?

always in the same direction as the primary disorder. meaning if there is low bicarb then compensation will drive PCO2 downward. if there is low PCO2 then compensation will drive bicarb downward. vice versa

15

what is the disorder if all three components move in the same direction

metabolic.

all you actually need is the pH and the CO2. if they are opposite it is respiratory, if they are the same it is metabolic. always look at pH for the direction...

16

what is the winter formula

PCO2 = 1.5 X HCO2 + 8 +/- 2; this ill help for searching for a separate or overlapping disease, it lets you know if the compensation is appropriate.

17

if the PCO2 is above the predicted range?

then there is an additional respiratory acidosis.

18

what are the anions?

Chloride and bicarb.

19

what are the cations?

sodium and potassium

20

what is the anion gap?

sodium - (Cl + bicarb)

21

what is the normal anion gap?

8-12

22

what causes non anion gap acidosis

chloride intoxication, GI loss of bicarb, renal loss of bicarb

23

what are the causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis

GOLDMARK
glycols
oxoproline
l lactic acidosis
d lactic acidosis
methanol
aspirin
renal failure
ketoacidosis