GI bleeding and jaundice Flashcards Preview

POM unit 5 > GI bleeding and jaundice > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI bleeding and jaundice Deck (30):
1

hematemesis

vomiting red blood or coffee grounds material

2

melena

black, tarry foul smelling stool

3

hematochezia

passage of bright red or maroon blood from the rectum

4

occult blood

absence of overt bleeding but presence of iron deficiency or positive fecal blood test.

5

common symptoms of anemia

lightheadedness, syncope, angina, dyspnea.

6

common causes of upper GI bleed

ulcers, varices, gastroduodenal erosions, mallory-weiss tears, erosive esophagitis, neoplasm, vascular ectasia, no source.

7

what does hematemesis tell us

there is probably an upper GI source, above the ligament of treitz

8

what does melena tell us

blood present in the GI tract for at 12-14 hours and as long as 3-5 days

9

what does hematochezia tell us

usually from a lower GI source or from a brisk UGI source in patients that are hemodynamically unstable.

10

melena or hematochezia

small bowel source

11

what is the most common presentation of UGIB

hematemesis and melena, hematemesis, melena

12

what is the most common cause of UGIB

peptic ulcer.

13

what are the causes of peptic ulcers

NSAIDs and H pylori

14

mallory-weiss tears

vomiting, retching, coughing preceeding hematemesis, especially in alcoholic patient.

15

esophageal varices

suspect with cirrhosis, poorest outcome among all UGIB.

16

hemorrhagic and erosive gastropathy/gastritis

cause mucosal lesions and thus not major bleeds. they are associated with alcohol and NSAID use.

17

what is the medical therapy for peptic ulcer bleed

proton pump inhibitor, h pylori eradication, avoidance of NSAIDs,

18

risk of rebleeding for ulcer s

active, visible vessel, adherent clot, flat spot or pigmented, clean based ulcer,

19

how do we stop peptic ulcer bleeds

need platelet aggregation and fibrin formation which requires pH > 6.8 PPI will keep the pH in correct range. they are effective in peptic ulcer bleeding

20

what is the most effective treatment for bleeds

proton pump inhibitors and endoscopy treatment.

21

how do small intestinal bleeds present

melena or hematochezia

22

what are the most common causes of small intestinal bleeds

vascular ectasia, tumors, NSAID erosions or ulcers.

23

what is the most common cause of LGIB in children?

Meckels diverticulum.

24

what are the most common causes of LGIB

hemorrhoids and anal fissures. diverticula, vascular ectasia, neoplasm, colitis,

25

what are the most common causes of LGIB in children

inflammatory bowel disease and juvenile polyps.

26

characteristics of a diverticula bleed

abrupt onset, painless, massive LGIB, stops spontaneously in 80% of cases and rebleeds in 20-25%

27

jaundice

yellowish discoloration of tissue resulting from the deposition of bilirubin, sign of liver dysfunction or hemolytic disorder.

28

bilirubin metabolism

metabolite of heme, provides color to bile, stool, urine.

29

does unconjugated bilirubin enter the glomerular filtrate

no. it binds albumin with high affinity.

30

bilirubinemia

elevation of conjugated bilirubin fraction and thus liver disease.