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MCAT O CHEM > Acid/Base > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acid/Base Deck (14):
1

Respiratory Acidosis

Too much CO2
Increased CO2 in blood from hypoventilation. Due to lung disease, depression of respiratory centers from drugs/disease, nerve/muscle disorders
CO2 up, H up, pH down
Metabolic compensation: Kidneys reabsorb more HCO3- into blood to match CO2. Kidneys secrete H+ to increase secretion of H+ into urine, increasing pH

2

Respiratory Alkalosis

Too little CO2
Decreased CO2 in blood from hyperventilation. Fever, anxiety, aspirin poisoning, high altitude
Respiratory comp: chemoreceptors in brain sense decreased CO2 reduce ventilation
Metabolic compensation: Kidneys excrete HCO3 to match CO2 decrease
Conserve H+, decreasing secretion of H+

3

Metabolic Acidosis

Too little HCO3- or too H+
Causes:
1. Diarrhea, loss of HCO3 in feces
2. Diabetes, incr keto acid prod (incr H)
3. Exercise, incr lactic acid (incr H)
4. Kidney failure, can't rid H so H+up
Resp comp: can be hyperventilation but only in the case of excess H+
Met comp: kidneys conserve HCO3-, excrete H+

4

Metabolic Alkalosis

Too much HCO3 or too little H
1. Vomit: loss of H from gastric fluids
2. Ingesting alkaline drugs like Tums
Resp comp: decrease ventilation
Met comp: Kidneys excrete HCO3- to counter. Conserve H+

5

Hydronium concentration of gastric solution pH 2.3

5 x 10^-3

6

Arrhenius definition

Acid yields hydronium, HCO3+ when added to water. Resulting solution has a greater hydronium concentration than hydroxide concentration

7

Bronsted-Lowry

Acid donates a proton to a
Base accepts a proton

8

Lewis

Acid accepts a pair of electrons from a base

9

Definitions of base

1. Yields hydroxide in water
2. proton acceptor
3. lone-pair donor

10

Acid undergoes ____ in water, base undergoes ___

dissociation, hydrolysis

11

Metal oxides/ hydroxides are

basic

12

Nonmetal oxides are

acidic

13

Rate strength of
phosphoric sulfuric carbonic acids

S>P>C

14

Strong oxyacid has:

Greatest O to H ratio and greatest electronegativity