Carbonyls, Carbs etc Flashcards Preview

MCAT O CHEM > Carbonyls, Carbs etc > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbonyls, Carbs etc Deck (17):
1

Acetal

C with two OR' groups (two esters), one R group, and an H

2

Hemiacetal

C with an OR group, an OH group, R, and H

3

Ketal

Like an acetal but with two R groups and two OR groups, instead of one R and one H

4

Hemiketal

C with OH, OR, and two R groups

5

Imide

Two ketones with an NH in the middle (like an acid anhydride but with N instead of O)

6

Lactone

Pentane with one O in the ring and a ketone next to it

7

Lactam

Pentane with an NH in the circle and a ketone next to it

8

Alcohols have (high/low) bps and are (miscible/immiscible) in water

High, miscible

9

Increased branching means BP

decreases

10

1H NMR of alcohol

1-5ppm

11

Aldehyde infrared absorbance

1720-1740cm-1

12

1H NMR aldehyde

9-10 ppm

13

Acetals/ ketals can only be formed and removed under

acidic conditions

14

Acetals and ketals often serve as ___ for carbonyl groups

protecting groups

15

Hemiketals and hemiacetals are formed only under

basic conditions

16

Recurring acid-catalyzed mechanism

1. Protonate carbonyl oxygen
2. break weakest bond in the compound: carbonyl pi bond
3. Nuc attacks the carbonyl carbon to make a new bond
4. Deprotonate to form neutral product

17

Alcohols are more apt to be (nuc/elec)

Nucleophiles. Generally not as active as a C-O double bond