Flashcards in AcidBase Pathologies Deck (14)
Normal pH range
Most common normal = 7.40
Normal PCO2 range
Most common normal = 40 mmHg
Normal HCO3- range
Most common normal = 24
Basic metabolic panel includes what?
CO2 = HCO3-
Arterial blood gas includes what?
**PCO2 = H+/acid
What are causes of respiratory acidosis?
Decreased central respiratory drive
Decreases neuromuscular/thoracic cage function
- myasthenia gravis
Increased dead space
What are causes of respiratory alkalosis?
Anything that leads to hyperventilation
- panic disorders
- high altitudes
- pulmonary embolisms
What are causes of metabolic alkalosis
Any loss of H+
- overuse of loop diuretics w/ secondary hyperaldosteronism
- severe hypokalemia (causes increased intracellular H+ shift and increased renal H+ excretion)
- contraction alkalosis (loss of significant amounts of fluid high in Na+/Cl-, but low in HCO3-) (includes loop diuretics and CHF)
Causes of metabolic acidosis
There are a lot and have to calculate the anion gap.
Causes are divided into 2 subcategories
1) involving an additional acidic substance in the blood
- if anion gap > 12
2) those not involving an additional substance in the blood
- if anion gap <12 or normal
Determines the levels of non Na+/Cl-/HCO3- in the blood
Na+ - ([HCO3-] + [Cl-]) = anion gap
**Normal = 12 (8-16)**
***on a BMP, CO2=HCO3-***
What are the 4 general types of anion gap metabolic acidosis?
1) lactic acidosis
4) severe kidney failure
subtypes of these 4 are “MUDPILES”
Used to further differentiate anion gap metabolic acidosis causes
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis
A non-anion gap metabolic acidosis where Cl- elevates to overtake normal HCO3- levels
Anion gap will show normal, but bicarbonate will be low and Cl- will be elevated