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HDM Midterm > Activation of Innate > Flashcards

Flashcards in Activation of Innate Deck (26):
1

TNF

From: Macrophages, T cells, Mast cells
targets | effects:
endothelial cells | activation (inflammation, coag)
Neutrophils | activation
Hypothalamus | fever
Liver | APP production
Muscle | Fat catabolism
and apoptosis in other cell types

2

IL-1

From: Macrophages, DCs, Endothelial, some epithelial, mast
Targets | effects:
Endothelial cells | activation (coag, inflammation)
Hypothalamus | fever
Liver | APP production
T cells | Th17 differentiation

3

Chemokines

From Macrophages, DCs, endothelial, T cells, fibroblasts, platelets
Targets | effects
leukocytes | increase integrity affinity - chemotaxis, activation

4

IL-12

From: DCs, Macrophages
Targets | Effects
NK cells and T cells | IFN-gamma production, increase cytotoxic ability
T cells | Th1 differentiation

5

IFN-gamma

From: NK cells, T lymphocytes
Targets | Effects
Macrophages | activation

6

Type 1 IFNs

From: DCs, Macrophages (alpha), fibroblasts (beta)
Targets | Effects
all cells | antiviral state, increase class I MHC expression
NK cells | activation

7

IL-10

From: Macrophages, DC, T cells
Targets | Effects
macrophages, DCs | inhibition of cytokine production and chemokine production, reduced expression of costimulators and class II MHC

8

IL-6

From Macrophages, endothelial, T cells
Targets | effects
Liver | APP production
B cells | proliferation of Ab producing cells

9

IL-15

From: Macrophages, others (???)
Target | Effects
NK, T cells | proliferation

10

IL-18

From Macrophages
Target | Effects
NK, T cells | IFN-gamma synthesis

11

TGF-beta

from many cell types
inhibits inflammation
T cells | differentation of TH17 regulatory T cells

12

Involved in contraction of immune response

TGF-Beta from many cell types
IL-10 from macrophages, DCs, Tregs

13

Effects of endogenous pyrogens (5 systems)

Liver - APP production
Bone-marrow endothelium - mobilize neutrophils
Hypothalamus - increase body temp
Fat, muscle - mobilize protein/fat to generate increase body temp
DCs - migration to lymph nodes and maturation to initiate adaptive immune response

14

stimulates DC migration to lymph nodes and maturation

TNF-alpha

15

cytokines induce the hypothalamus to produce heat because

bacterial/viral replication is decreased at higher temperature
+ Ag processing
+ adaptive immunity
human cells become more resistant to the negative effect of TNF

16

Hepatocytes produce what in response to IL-6

acute phase proteins
c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, mannose binding lectin

17

diagnostic marker of acute inflammation

levels of acute phase proteins in serum can be used to follow disease progression and treatment due to their characteristic of increasing rapidly due to infection, injury, inflammation, trauma

18

functions of complement

stimulates infection, facilitates antigen phagocytosis and can lyse some cells directly

19

primary opsonization complement fragment

C3b

20

anaphyalotoxins

C3a, C4a, C5a - increase vascular permeability to get stuff in and out of damaged/infected tissue by inducing smooth muscle contraction and degranulation of mast cells/ basophils

21

P and E selectin

expression on endothelium increased by IL-1 and TNF
binds rolling leukocytes for extravasation

22

neutrophil homing signal

LFA1-ICAM1, IL-8, IL-8L

23

Macrophage homing signal

VLA-4 - VCAM1, CCR2 - CCL2

24

processes of acute inflammatory response

vasodilation
increased vascular permeability
emigration of leukocytes from blood into damaged area

25

proteins of inflammatory exudate

clotting proteins
complement proteins
kinin cascade (vasodilation)
fibrinolytic (to degrade clot when wound has healed)

26

LAD

leukocyte adhesion deficiency
leukocytes cannot leave vasculature to migrate into tissue because defective beta2 chain of integrins (CD18)
defects in CD18 lead to low/no surface expression of CD11a, b, c

delayed separation of umbilical cord/omphalitis - recurrent bacterial infections of skin and mucosal, leukocytosis, periodontitis, impaired wound healing, absent pus formation