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Flashcards in Acute inflammation Deck (15):
1

What are the causes of Acute inflammation ?

Infection, Allergic reactions, Trauma and Tissue Necrosis

2

The 5 characteristics of Acute Inflammation

Rubor, Tumour , Calor, Dolor and Loss of function

3

Steps in Acute Inflammation

1. Vasoconstriction
2. Vasodilation
3. Endothelial Permeability
4. Increased RBC and Blood flow - Stasis of blood at the

4

What are the mediators of Vasodilation

Histamine - Present in granules of Mast Cells , Eosinophils and Platelets
Prostaglandins
Bradykinin

5

Mediators of Permeability

Bradykinin
Prostaglandins- Blocked by NSAIDs and Thromboxane
Histamine

6

Changes in tissue

1. Increase Blood flow
2. Formation of Exudate
3. Neutrophil Emigration

7

What is Aspirin doing in the body

Inhibition of enzyme of Cyclo-Oxygenase which makes Prostaglandins- Fever
Thromboxane A2- pro-clotting

8

What the forces on the vessel that produce Exudate

Starling's Law-
The Hydrostatic of the blood forcing out
The plasma colloid pressure forcing back in- vessel permeability due to gaps in endothelial cells.

9

Local complications of acute inflammation

Damage to normal tissue - degranulation during Phagocytosis
Obstruction of tubes
Loss of fluid - burns
Pain and loss of function

10

Systemic Complication of Acute Inflammation

Fever- TNF and IL-6 cytokines
Leucocytosis
Acute Phase response- C3 complement , Protein synthesis changes e.g. CRP , Aplha1 AntiTryspin
Shock- Failure of circulation

11

What happens in the Resolution of Acute inflammation

Mediators have short half life - Draining back to lymphatic/ Venules . neutrophils - apoptosis, pararencymal tissue repaired
Chronic inflammation - fibrous scar
Abcess

12

What are the stages of Lobar Pneumonia?

1.congestion - heavy , red and boggy . Serous Exudate
2. Red hepatisation - Few days . Liver like and alveolar space has neutrophils, rbc and fibrin. Pus on Pleura
3. Grey Hepatisation- Tissue dry , grey and fimr . RBC lysed
4. Resolution - Exudate is digested and basic architecture is kept.

13

What are the stains for Histology ?

hematoxylin - Pink for DNA and eosin- purple CT

14

Pathogenesis of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficency

Protease which breaks down the portiens released by neutrophils
Cirrhosis, Emphysema

15

Chronic Granulomatous disease

Phagocytes can not produce the Superoxide ROS - Respiratory burst leads to chronic infections