Acute Injury Flashcards Preview

Intro to Physio > Acute Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Injury Deck (26):
1

What is the difference between acute and chronic injury?

Acute is less than 6 weeks, chronic is more than 6 weeks

2

What are the 3 stages of tissue healing?

Stage 1: Inflammation
Stage 2: Organisation, granulation
Stage 3: Regeneration, fibrosis, remodelling

3

What is fibrosis?

Scarring

4

When does tissue repair occur?

When barriers are penetrated, e.g. puncture, crush, tear, sheering, bruise, burn

5

What are the two methods of tissue repair?

- Regeneration: Same kind of tissues replace destroyed tissues, original function restored
- Fibrosis: Connective tissue replaces destroyed tissue, original function lost

6

What occurs during the inflammation stage of tissue healing?

- Release of inflammatory chemicals (kinins)
- Dilation of blood vessels
- Increase in vessel permeability
- Clotting

7

During inflammation, why do the blood vessels become more permeable?

To allow white blood cells, fluid, clotting proteins and other plasma proteins to seep into the injured area

8

What are the functions of the inflammatory response?

- Prevents spread of damaging agents
- Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
- Alerts adaptive immune system
- Sets the stage for repair

9

How does inflammation begin?

Chemicals are released into ECF by injured tissues, immune cells & blood proteins

10

What cells bear toll-like receptors (TLRs)?

Macrophages & epithelial cells of boundary tissues

11

How many types of TLRs recognise specific classes of infecting microbes?

11

12

What do activated TLRs trigger release off?

Cytokines that promote inflammation

13

What are inflammatory mediators & what do they cause?

Kinins, prostaglandins & complement - dilate local arteriols, make capillaries leaky, attract leukocytes

14

What does swelling (oedema) cause?

Pushes on nerve endings causing pain, moves foreign materials into lymphatic vessels, delivers clotting proteins and complement

15

What do clotting factors form & what is its function?

Fibrin mesh - scaffold for repair, isolates injured area so invaders cannot spread

16

What are the cardinal signs of acute inflammation?

Redness, heat, swelling, pain & sometimes impairment of function

17

What are the main components of organisation & granulation?

New nerve tissue, new capillary beds & fibroblasts/myofibroblasts

18

What do myofibroblasts do?

Pull the edges of a wound together

19

In stage 2 of tissue healing, what does organisation achieve & how?

Restores blood supply
- Blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue
- Epithelium regenerates
- Fibroblasts produce collagen fibres to bridge the gap
- Debris phagocytosed
- New blood vessels & nerve endings grow together

20

What occurs during stage 3 of tissue healing (regeneration & fibrosis)?

- Scab detaches
- Fibrous tissue matures
- Results in fully regenerated epithelium with underlying scar tissue

21

What tissues regenerate extremely well?

Epithelial, bone, areolar connective, dense irregular connective

22

What tissues have moderate regenerating capacity?

Smooth muscle, dense regular connective

23

What tissues have virtually no functional regenerative capacity?

Cardiac, nervous tissue of brain & spinal cord

24

What are the healing response time frames?

- Inflammation: 1 hour - 4 days
- Organisation, granulation: 12 hours - 3 weeks
- Regeneration, fibrosis, remodelling: 3 days - 18 months

25

What are the benefits of RICE?

- Prevents re-bleeding/further injury
- Allows platelets, myofibroblastts to hold position
- Relieves pain
- Decreases circulation
- Decreases bleeding
- Decreases inflammation
- Decreases swelling

26

What are the risks of RICE?

- Stiffness
- Lack of circulation of blood and lymphatics
- Ice burn
- Slow healing if ice used for too long
- Slow circulation/cut off circulation