Flashcards in Concepts Behind Stretching Deck (18):
What is stretching?
Using a technique to increase the extensibility of shortened soft tissues
What is range of motion?
How far it will move - normal, full and functional
What is flexibility?
Ability to respond to a stretch force and relax, deform or yield.
What is flexibility determined by and what is it influenced by?
Determined by muscles across a joint, influenced by joint ROM via bone, cartilage and ligaments
What is hypomobility?
Restricted motion, shortened soft tissues
What are the causes of hypomobility?
- Prolonged immobilisation
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Postural malalignment
- Tissue trauma and damage
- Muscle weakness of opposing structures
What components of muscle structure determine flexibility?
- Sarcomeres (number, length, size, connecting cross bridges)
- Non-contractile connective tissue (amount and arrangement)
- Physical orientation of fibres
What are the indications to stretch?
- Potential for further impact on other structures or function
- Stretching for maintenance
- Preventative program
What are the contra-indications to stretch?
- Bony block
- Acute inflammation
- Pain severity
- Joint instability (depends on tissue tightness for support)
- Weakness/dysfunction (depends on tissue tightness for support)
What are the types of active stretches?
What are the types of passive stretches?
What is PNF stretching?
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - contract-relax using neural patterning and reciprocal inhibition
How often does PNF stretching need to be performed to achieve lasting changes in ROM?
1-2 times per week
What is the function of tendons?
Tensile force transmission and storage and release of elastic energy during locomotion, commonly used in acitivities with stretch-shortening cycles (SCCs)
What type of stretching can significantly increase tendon elasticity?
Ballistic (plyometric) stretching
What are the clinical contexts for stretching?
- Mobility (training for performance)
- Mobility (training for injury prevention)
What did Shrier (1999) find about stretching pre- and post-exercise?
It does not help post exercise muscle sorness and does not reduce lower extremity injury risk - further longitudinal studies needed