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Flashcards in Concepts Behind Stretching Deck (18):

What is stretching?

Using a technique to increase the extensibility of shortened soft tissues


What is range of motion?

How far it will move - normal, full and functional


What is flexibility?

Ability to respond to a stretch force and relax, deform or yield.


What is flexibility determined by and what is it influenced by?

Determined by muscles across a joint, influenced by joint ROM via bone, cartilage and ligaments


What is hypomobility?

Restricted motion, shortened soft tissues


What are the causes of hypomobility?

- Prolonged immobilisation
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Postural malalignment
- Tissue trauma and damage
- Deformity
- Muscle weakness of opposing structures


What components of muscle structure determine flexibility?

- Sarcomeres (number, length, size, connecting cross bridges)
- Non-contractile connective tissue (amount and arrangement)
- Physical orientation of fibres


What are the indications to stretch?

- Hypomobility
- Potential for further impact on other structures or function
- Stretching for maintenance
- Preventative program
- Warm-up/cool-down


What are the contra-indications to stretch?

- Bony block
- Fracture
- Acute inflammation
- Pain severity
- Haematoma
- Hypermobility
- Joint instability (depends on tissue tightness for support)
- Weakness/dysfunction (depends on tissue tightness for support)


What are the types of active stretches?

- Antagonist/agonist
- Contract-relax
- Plyometric
- Sustained


What are the types of passive stretches?

- Plyometric
- Sustained
- Contract-relax


What is PNF stretching?

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - contract-relax using neural patterning and reciprocal inhibition


How often does PNF stretching need to be performed to achieve lasting changes in ROM?

1-2 times per week


What is the function of tendons?

Tensile force transmission and storage and release of elastic energy during locomotion, commonly used in acitivities with stretch-shortening cycles (SCCs)


What type of stretching can significantly increase tendon elasticity?

Ballistic (plyometric) stretching


What are the clinical contexts for stretching?

- Warm-up
- Rehab
- Mobility (training for performance)
- Mobility (training for injury prevention)


What did Shrier (1999) find about stretching pre- and post-exercise?

It does not help post exercise muscle sorness and does not reduce lower extremity injury risk - further longitudinal studies needed


What does evidence show for regular stretching?

It improves force, jump height and speed, although there is no evidence that it improves running economy