ADAPTATIONS TO DIFFERENT DIETS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ADAPTATIONS TO DIFFERENT DIETS Deck (11):
1

how are carnivores adapted? (3)

- mostly protein diet, easily digested
- so short intestine compared to body length
- large intestine straight with a smooth lining

2

how are herbivores adapted? (3)

- plant-diet, difficult to digest
- so long intestine compared to body
- pouched long intestine

3

how are omnivores adapted? (2)

- medium length gut
- pouched long intestine

4

why do omnivores/herbivores have a pouched gut?

- so it can stretch to accommodate the larger amount of faeces produced by digesting plants, containing cellulose

5

what types of teeth do humans have? (4)

- incisors
- canines
- premolars
- molars

6

herbivore dentition adaptations (7)

- incisors on the lower jaw only, with indistinguishable canines
- when eating tongue wraps around grass and pulls it tight across leathery dental pad on the upper jaw and teeth slice through it
- diastema gap separates front and side (premolars) teeth, grass is moved between the grinding surfaces of the molars
- molars interlock like M & W, lower jaw moves from side to side in a circular grinding action
- when grinding surfaces are worn down they expose sharp enamel ridges which makes grinding more efficient
- teeth have open, unrestricted roots so grow throughout the animals lifetime
- skull is relatively moved, lacking in strong muscles because food doesn't try to escape

7

carnivore dentition adaptions (7)

- sharp incisors to grip and tear muscle from bone
- canine teeth are large and curved for piercing and seizing prey, tearing muscle and killing
- premolars/molars have sharp cusps for cutting and crushing
- specialised cheek teeth, carnassials, sliding past each other like scissor blades, shearing muscle off bone, large & identifiable
- lower jaws move vertically to keep a better grip on prey
- carnivores open jaws more widely
- protrusions on the skull for muscle to insert into bond, leading to a strong grip and bone crushing

8

how do ruminants digest cellulose?

- mutualistic microbes living in the gut that secrete enzymes

9

ruminant

- a cud-chewing herbivore with a stomach divided into 4 (the rumen being the largest) with mutualistic microbes that secrete enzymes living in the gut

10

steps of cellulose digestion (9)

- grass cut by teeth and mixed with saliva to form cud, swallowed via oesophagus to the rumen
- in the rumen food mixes with microbes and they secrete enzymes to digest cellulose into glucose
- products are fermented into organic acids, absorbed into blood and used as energy, waste released
- C6H12O6 = 2CH3COOH + CO2 + CH4
- fermented grass passes to reticulum and reformed into cud, regurgitated into the mouth for more chewing
- cud swallowed and regurgitated many times
- cud passes into the omasum
- then into the abomasum
- then small intestine/large intestine

11

ruminant stomachs (4)

- rumen, where cellulose is digested
- reticulum, where grass is reformed into cud
- omasum, where water and organic acids are absorbed
- abomasum, protein is digested