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3 ADAPTATIONS FOR NUTRITION > PARASITES > Flashcards

Flashcards in PARASITES Deck (11):
1

parasite

live on/in an organism at detriment to the host

2

pork tapeworm adaptations (3)

- ribbon-like, allowing food to move past it
- anterior end, scolex, made up of muscle-carrying suckers and hooks attaching to the duodenum wall
- body made up of proglottids allowing it to separate and reproduce

3

what hosts does the pork tapeworm have? (2)

- primary host = human
- secondary host = pig

4

how the tapeworm passes between hosts (2)

- pork infected by eating food contaminated by human faeces
- human infected by consuming undercooked, infected pork

5

what hostile conditions must the tapeworm survive? (5)

- surrounded by mucus and digestive juices
- peristalsis produces constant movement
- pH changes when passing to the duodenum
- exposed to host immune system
- if the host dies, so does the parasite

6

two types of parasite (2)

- endoparasite = lives inside organism
- ectoparasite = lives outside organism

7

what does the tapeworm need to do? (7)

- penetrate host
- attach to host
- protect against immune response
- develop only organs necessary for survival
- produce many eggs, for a high chance of transmission (to the second host)
- have an intermediate host
- have resistant stages while away from the host

8

tapeworm structural adaptations (7)

- suckers + double-row of curved hooks to attach to duodenum wall
- thick body covering, cuticle, to protect from immune response
- ability to make enzyme inhibitors, preventing host digesting
- large SA/V to absorb digested food
- no movement so simple nervous/excretery systems, reproduction priority
- hermaphrodite, proglottids containing male&female organs, pass out with faeces
- eggs have resistant shells to survive until in second host

9

effects of the tapeworm (2)

- long-term infection leading to taeniasis - abdominal pains & weakness
- if infected eggs eaten directly, form cysts in organs inc. eyes and brain, damaging surrounding tissue

10

tapeworm treatment/prevention (4)

- drugs
- education about cause
- improved sanitation
- frequent meat inspection

11

headlice

- ectoparasite
- feed by sucking blood from scalp