MODES OF NUTRITION Flashcards Preview

3 ADAPTATIONS FOR NUTRITION > MODES OF NUTRITION > Flashcards

Flashcards in MODES OF NUTRITION Deck (16):
1

autotrophic

make their own food from simple inorganic raw materials (i.e water and co2)

2

types of autotrophs (2)

- photoautotrophic
- chemoautotrophic

3

photoautotrophic (3)

- use light as energy source for photosynthesis
- green plants, some protoctista/bacteria
- holophytic

4

chemoautotrophic (3)

- use energy from chemical reactions
- prokaryotes performing chemosynthesis
- less efficient than photosynthesis

5

heterotrophic (3)

- cannot make food, consume products made by autotrophs
- consumers
- animals, some fungi/protoctista/bacteria

6

saphrotrophic/saphrobiontic (4)

- all fungi, some bacteria
- feed on decaying matter (detritis)
- secrete enzymes (e.g proteases, amylases, lipases) onto food for extracellular digestion
- absorb soluble products via diffusion/active transport

7

decomposers

- microscopic saphrotrophs

8

parasite (3)

- obtain nutrition from host
- endoparasites inside, ectoparasites on surface
- host always suffers harm/death

9

holozoic

- used by most animals
- ingest, digest, egest indigestible remains

10

carnivore

- feed on other animals

11

herbivore

- feed on plant matter

12

omnivore

- feed on plants and animals

13

detrivore

- dead/decaying material

14

unicellular digestion (amoeba) (5)

- animal-like protoctista use holozoic digestion
- single celled w/ large SA/V ratio
- obtain nutrients via diffusion/facilitated diffusion/active trans.
- take in larger molecules/microbes by endocytosis into food vacuoles to fuse with lysosomes
- products absorbed into cytoplasm, remains egested by exocytosis

15

multicellular digestion (hydra) (5)

- two cell layers, ectoderm and endoderm, seperated by jelly network of nerve fibres
- cylindrical shape w/ tentacles surrounding mouth (only opening)
- lives in fresh water attached to leaves/twigs by basal disc
- extends tentacles and sting/paralyse small organisms that brush them
-tentacles move prey into mouth where endodermal cells secrete enzymes (not amylase) and digested extracellularly
- products absorbed, remains egested

16

tube gut (3)

- many animals have tube digestive system w/ two openings
- anterior (mouth)/posterior (anus)
- ingested at mouth/egested at anus