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What is Spina Bifida Occulta?

Neural arches of L5 and/or S1 fail to develop normally and fuse posterior to the vertebral canal.
Defect is usually concealed by the overlying skin but its location is often indicated by a tuft of air.
Most people have no back problems


What is Spina Bifida Cystica?

In more severe cases of Spina Bifida, one or more of the vertebral arches may fail to develop completely.
Associated with herniation of the meninges and/or of the spinal cord.
Neurological symptoms are usually present in severe cases e.b. Paralysis of the limbs and disturbance in bladder and bowel control.
Severe forms of Spina Bifida result from neural tube defects such as the defective closure of the neural tube during the 4th week of embryonic development


Borders of the femoral canal? Contents?

Anterior: Inguinal ligament
Posterior: Pectineal ligament and superior rami of Pubis
Medial: Lacunar ligament
Lateral: Femoral vein

The femoral canal contains lymph nodes, loose connective tissue and empty space which allows distension of the adjacent vein, so it can cope with increased venous return or increased intra-abdominal pressure.